Synopsis of The Covert War Against Rock by Walker Bennett, SF Author January 20, 2008
This is not a review, but a synopsis of: COVERT WAR ON ROCK, BY ALEX CONSTANTINE
Acknowledgements: Government covert "OPERATION CHAOS"... a draft outline found among the papers of the late political researcher Mae Brussell, provided the framework and inspiration for the study.
(The author wishes to thank Elliot Mintz, spokesman for Bob Dylan and Yoko Ono, and many others)......
Alex Constantine, author
Chapter 1. A Killing Field for the Heat
Chapter 2. Time Machine (CIA and the Mob)
Chapter 3. Parapolitical Stars in the Dope Show
Chapter 4. The Death Of Cass Elliot (Mamas And The Papas) and Other Restless Youth
Chapter 5. Brian Jones the Rolling Stones
Chapter 6. The End of Rock Festivals
Chapter 7. Jimi Hendrix Political Harassment and Murder
Chapter 8. Fragrance de Chaos - Jim Morrison
Chapter 9. Joan Baez, Phil Ochs And Bob Dylan, Etc
Chapter 10. Who Killed the Kennedys (and Sal Mineo)
Chapter 11. Project Walrus - John Lennon
Chapter 12. The Deaths of Marley and Tosh
Chapter 13. Gang War - Sons of Chaos
Chapter 14. False God Syndrome
FOREWORD - The corporate media harbors hundreds of CIA propagandists. The agency and organized crime have, for over thirty years, engaged in a program to SILENCE POPULAR MUSICIANS whose influence subverts the cynical THOUGHT CONTROL tactics of American government and media.
This book is an attempt to return that evidence to the historical record.
PRELUDE. Assassination Politics of the Vietnam War period.
Former CIA Richard Ober, director of OPERATION CHAOS... the most expansive domestic surveillance and COVERT OPERATION net-work in America's history. The intelligence sectors response to the anti-war and civil rights movements ran covert ASSASSINATIONS programs as well. The C.I.A. had assembled a thick Concordia of lethal methods. The project began with an anonymous , undated memo on assassination by "natural cause." "Knock off key people" the heavily censored document specified, " how to knock off key guys, natural causes," (a declassified memo..)
1) Bodies left with no hope of the cause of death ever being determined by the most complete autopsy and chemical examinations, 2) Bodies left in such circumstances as to simulate accidental death 3) Bodies left in such circumstances as to simulate accidental suicide 4) Bodies left with residue that simulate those caused by natural diseases.
CHAPTER 1..... A Killing Field for the Heat........ ..
In 1967 a subversive form of music melded with politics in San Francisco. Thus, destabilization tactics were summarized in a leaked memo, excerpt: "show them as depraved, call attention to their habits, and every possible embarrassment. Send articles to the newspaper showing their depravity. Use misinformation to confuse and corrupt. Provoke target groups into rivalries that might result in death."
For the first time since it's creation the warfare state erected by the Dulles brothers, Hoover, MacArthur, Kissinger, Nixon, etc. was threatened by an increasingly militant segment of society. The FBI rose to the challenge. On July 30, 1994, Intelligence files on Leonard Bernstein reveal the bureau spent countless hours examining his links with associations deemed "communist" to "subversive."
FBI agent Jane Moore said the FBI saw the strength and power of the idea of socialism, realized it represented a very real danger to our profit-motivated corporate state and had declared total covert war against not only the denim clad revolutionaries but all progressive forces. The bureaus tactic was to cut them down or burn them out before they realized their POTENTIAL.
At the federal level, the CIA. was already pursuing similar objectives under code name Operation Chaos.
Targets of "Chaos" Blank Panther Movement.... Geronimo Pratt, jailed for 27 yrs. for murders he did not commit. He was also a target of COINTELPRO, the FBI "counter-surveillance program". Politically active hippies were also targets. Many underground papers were put out of business when they were abandoned by advertisers who had been pressured by the FBI. From 1967 to 1972 the operation compiled 13,000 files, which concerned 300,000 individuals and organizations. The CIA directorate of operations created an index of 7 million names.
CHAPTER 2........ The Machine, Cia and Mob Influences on the Rock Industry
The mafia was to be enlisted for the covert war against the counter-culture. In the mid-60's CHAOS officials and the mob both eyed the rise of political rock music. The CIA saw them as long haired communists screaming for revolution and the end to the Vietnam War. The mafia wanted more constrictive financial control over the recording industry. Top 40, the reigning broadcast format in America owes its very existence to the CIA and mafia combo. Drugs would enter the equation, plus youth and LSD ( the politics of heroin and LSD drugs were only one contribution the "agency" has made to the American culture( CIA), they ran and run both drugs to date (allegedly)
The National Security Council was patterned after HITLERS security council , and its jurisdiction was to oversee the CIA by dictate of the NATIONAL SECURITY ACT of 1947.
CHAPTER 3... Parapolitical Stars In The Dope Show...
Books were burned, book stores closed down, FEMINIST AND OTHER SOCIAL JUSTICE offices and social centers were broken into, artists, writers, musicians and countless hippies got dragged into court, to answer to trumped up charges of corruption, obscenity, drug-abuse, and anything that might silence their voices. LSD appeared on the streets, as if on cue to destroy student descent. More potent drugs used in federally sponsored behavior modification studies (translates mind-control) also found their way to society at large. STP created by Dow-Chemical Co. in 1964 was considered incapacitating agent by the CIA. Emergency wards were choked in San Francisco with freaking bohemians. PCP, an animal tranquilizer, also fed to the hippies by the CIA. The Mob opened mass production labs and a meticulously organized network of traffickers to move black market drugs. A CIA agent who claims to have infiltrated the covert LSD network, provided a clue when he referred to Haight-Asbury as a human guinea pig farm. A dozen years earlier in the same city, George Hunter White and his CIA colleagues had set up a "safe house" and began testing hallucinogenic drugs on unwitting citizens. Now suddenly there was a neighborhood packed with young people who were ready and willing to gobble experimental chemicals. Charles Manson and Timothy Leary arrived in San Francisco and each had a keen interest in mind-control.
Dulles, head of CIA, mentioned in his memo that the agency was testing drugs on groups of people. CIA personnel mingled with the drug dealers.. Monitoring stations were set up, among them was Louis J. West, Jack Ruby's shrink, West oversaw Dr. Jose Delgado, author of Physical Control of the Mind, and Ross Addey, a veteran of operation Paperclip (Nazi's entry into CIA and NASA and else where, incl. Canada, best kept secret), Dr. Margaret Singer of the CIA created False Memory Syndrome. All participated in the study of LSD as a politically destabilizing weapon. One CIA memo named the drug as a potential new agent for unconscious warfare. In 1967 as CHAOS was launched by CIA White House. Timothy Leary, tossed out of the army for erratic behavior, left experimenting with LSD on prisoners in N.Y. for the CIA, and donned the robes of the designated LSD media prelate. He later admitted to knowing at the time that some powerful people in Washington who have sponsored this drug research. Leary was constantly surrounded by "ops" of intelligent agents.
CHAPTER 4. The death of Cass Elliot (of the Mamas and the Papas)and other restless youth.......
According to Mae Brussell, researcher, in 1968 orders went out to proceed to neutralize segments of society including those restless youth. By 1969 the SSS (Special Services Section of the FBI), combined with the Justice department and with the CIA operation Chaos. Thus, the Manson Murders, etc. Manson joined the Process church, a Satanist church, who also worshipped Lucifer and Jehovah. It was (is) big in Hollywood at the time. (Manson clearly a mind-controlled dupe).
One FBI report on Cass Elliot, marked "urgent", states that she attended a fund raiser in Hollywood, for Peace and Justice. Cass had political ambitions and wanted to be a senator, maybe, in 20 yrs or so. An underground paper called The Realist suggested Cass was the target of political foul play. The editor Paul Krassner said, "I believe she might have been killed. She knew a lot about the incredible criminal links between Hollywood and Washington and Las Vegas."
CHAPTER 5. The Murder In The House Of Pooh, Brian Jones Of The Rolling Stones........
The fusion of music and politics made the stones an enemy of the state. There were infiltrators and drug set-ups and busts .Thus, Jagger said " This is a protest against the system, war stems from power-mad politicians and patriots, we must end all these mindless men from seats of power, and replace them with real people, people of compassion." The stones were stalked harassed and getting paranoid. An odd construction crew came to restore the house of Brian Jones, (the former cottage of AA Milne, author of Pooh books.)They muscled their way into his private life, and had a weird hold over Brian. One worker, Thorogood, made a death bed confession, that he had drowned Wilson. The tell-tale signs of cover-up by authorities are unmistakable. He was off drugs at the time. His death was not caused by a life of abuse as was claimed, he was murdered.
CHAPTER 6..... The End of Rock Festivals...
Five Months later, a music festival happened near San Francisco, and became murderous. The band would be forever tainted by the surreal violence. Editor of Rolling Stone, Jan Wenner, put the Rolling Stones Band in touch with Melvin Belli, attorney of California well-heeled conservative base, whose eulogy at his funeral was, "a man of law against the CHAOS of life, a man of CHAOS against the law of life." He was one of CIA's most trusted court room wonders. Belli chose the Altamount for the Stones concert. It had all the charm of a grave yard, and not fit to draw 300,000 people! Ralph Sonny Barger, of the Hells Angels, was hired to keep the peace, (an informant hit-man, who was hired by feds to kill labor activist Cesar Chavez, but was arrested instead on an old charge.) Hells Angels are represented in 18 countries now, largest crime family export. Who in 1969 suspected the Hells Angels was a death squad in employ of the political agencies? (a refreshing break from the status quo?)
At the Stone's concert the Hells Angels beat up on the youth who were " too excited" to see Jagger and Leary arrive, an 18 year old girl was stabbed to death for allegedly having a gun, by the Hells Angels. There ended up 3 dead and many wounded. A Cancer Was Planted And Growing In The Counter-Culture
CHAPTER 7... Jimi Hendrix Political Harassment and Murder......
He didn't die from a drug overdose, he was not an out of control dope fiend. He was not a junkie. FBI COUNTELPRO was out to do more than prevent a communist menace, from overtaking the U.S.! (or to control black power movement). It was out to obliterate its opposition and ruin the representatives of the people involved in the anti-war movement, Civil Rights Movement, and the rock revolution.
Hendrix manager, Mike Jeffery, by his own admission was an intelligence agent. He frequently boasted he had powerful underworld connections. There were many mafia managed "acts". The CIA/Mafia connection had exercised considerable influence in the music industry for decades. Hendrix wanted out of the contract. He felt he was under surveillance and felt more and more unsafe in New York, his former safe haven. His manager, thus, might have created a Toronto arrest, to silence Jimi. He now preferred him to be isolated. He had always been a trusting and open person before, and now he didn't know who to trust.
He was getting 10 grand for a 50 grand concert. Hendrix friends said Jeffrey's would get more money from a dead Hendrix than a living one. There was also a possible million dollar insurance policy in Jeffrey's name.
Was Hendrix murdered? The official cause of death was asphyxiation caused by vomit? The pathologist report left the cause of death open. Monica Danneman (investigator) , had long insisted Hendrix was murdered. At the time of her own death, she had brought media attention to the case in a letter and highly publicized court battle. Monica' s body was found in a fume-filled car near her home, in south England. It was called a suicide.
She had a lot of death threats, and people who knew her said "she didn't believe in the concept of suicide".
CHAPTER 8... Death of Jim Morrison, Lead Singer Of The Doors....... ....
Two years after the death of Brian Jones, Jim Morrison's body was found in a bath-tub in his flat in Paris. Death was attributed to natural causes, possibly heart failure. Morrison' s political outbursts attracted the FBI. He had said, " I like the idea about the breaking away or over-throw of the established order." In another interview Manzerek (of the Doors) considered possible motives for the elimination of the Anarchistic Lizard King "they were going to stop all rock and roll by stopping the Doors. He was considered the most dangerous because he was saying..... "We want the world and we want it NOW." FBI harassment rendered Morrison so anxiety ridden that he had an ulcer by mid-twenties. Paranoia struck deep and it was thought he was a marked man. Bob Seymore wrote a book re: Jim called "The End" and conceded" you could say the CIA and the other intelligence agencies may have had a hand in the deaths of Hendrix, Joplin and Morrison etc., simply because they were the leaders of the generation of the 60's.
A book "The Bank of America in Louisiana" appeared in 1975, after his death, supposedly written by Morrison. Some say he survived Paris and lived a life free from celebrity and the FBI. A James Douglas Morrison, claimed to be operating as an intelligence agent for a number of groups including the CIA and Interpol, and also had connections with various occult groups. This "JM2" also claims to be the dead rock star. There are stacks of official looking document, and letters between the agencies, CNN, NBC, and JM2. This claim was made by researcher Thomas Lyttle who claims to have seen what looks like authentic documents. There seems to be hundreds if not thousands of miscellaneous files under the name.
No autopsy was performed after his death, a probable violation of French law. Pamela Courson, who was with him at the time, died later of an overdose that some said was a "Hot Shot" or poisoned opiate.
CHAPTER 9.... Joan Baez, Phil Ochs.... et al
Joan Baez survived the Operation Chaos backlash, and she fully understood that political assassination could be her reward for openly castigating military-industrial masters of war. Her close friend Martin Luther King Jr., the worlds most honored civil rights leader, told her and a group of activists before delivering his famed speech, how the police had dumped him in the hole and it was black and he couldn't see. They shoved food in the room but he wouldn't eat it for fear it was poisoned, so hungry and afraid he got on his knees and prayed and when he got up he said it didn't matter anymore. Kings entourage hid their pain when they knew what he meant. "We knew he was going to die, and he was ready to die, and he was ready to make a commitment to Vietnam, poverty etc". He said, "I have been to the mountaintop and I have seen the Promised Land and it doesn't matter anymore."
Joan Baez wrote a memoir," And a Voice to Sing With", (1987) of her childhood and her father as a bright young Stanford scientist "Albert Baez recognized the danger of the unleashed atom even in the early days" He took a job at Cornell University in Ithica, New York (Cornell is the base of CIA Mind Control experiments and Joan is a survivor of ritual abuse and mind control experimentation, according to letters she has written to researchers and other survivors) Many universities are common covers for trauma-based- mind-control programming. She has a song about it...
"I am paying for protection, Smoking out the truth...chasing recollections. ..nailing down the roof"
Baez entertained no illusions about the CIA, and promoted "State of Siege", a film she saw as exposing the corrupt element of AID (Agency for International Development, overseas), which funded the teaching of techniques of torture tactics in Latin America. She said "We solicited signatures against the use of torture". Torture was made more prevalent than it had been since the Middle Ages, thus the danger was its common use as government policy. The hands of the US government were far from clean.
Joan did years of intensive therapy to confront her inner pain, fears, insomnia, panic attacks, phobias, anxieties, etc. Therapists kept Joan glued together, "to get me to the next gig", she said.
Joan's father was invited to become the head of Operations at Cornell, which would bring him in contact with CIA "Human Ecology Foundation" (re: Academic Mind Control Studies, ....that are behind the fences of the Ivy League campuses across the country). Joan said it was "CLASSIFIED". She was not buried by Chaos, but she lived under its intolerant eye and it could silence her. An example is a mistranslation in Japanese re: her comments on Vietnam and Nagasaki. The interpreter was threatened and complied.... A year later sale of her records were banned from all Army PXs and when she denounced the draft on the Smother's Brothers Hour, she was censored by CBS, her comments cut, and CBS cancelled the Brothers soon after. The same year, her then husband, David Harris, was sentenced to three years in prison for draft evasion.
Civil Rights activists were repeatedly falsely accused. Joan Baez and Bob Dylan Mimi Farina and Richard Farina....
In 1961 Joan met Bob Dylan, whose songs had such stark political flavor. Bob nearly died in 1966 after a motorcycle accident. (??Questionable) Joan's brother-in-law Richard Farina did a die few months later in a motorcycle accident. It was suspicious and happened on his wife Mimi Farina's 21st birthday. He was on his way back from a promotional party for his book: "Been Down So Long It Looks like up". Before his death he had been producing an album to be performed by Joan, it got shelved.
Mimi Farina, late sister of Joan, is an equally talented singer and politically active woman who sang in prisons and went out hands on "to the poor people". Ms. Farina organized groups to carry out these endeavors, incl. "Bread and Roses," in which performers go to prisons and institutions to sing for free, and other Human Rights endeavors. Bread and Roses' has now risen and branched to many states and other areas. Her dedicated works live on.
After Dylan's accident he went thru a political change . He dropped the broadside lyrics which were grating on the nerves of the establishment. Mark Edmundson wrote: "He wasn't ruined by drugs. His work combines art and politics and the harshest truth about the world. He is a visionary skeptic; he loves the promise of America and yet is disgusted by much of its reality."
His songs tell about the cane murder of black servant Hattie Carroll, the death of boxer Davie Moore, the unbroken chains of injustice. They go to the heart of the decades most recurring preoccupation ,that in a time of irreversible technical progress , moral civilization has pathetically faltered, that no matter how much international attention is focused on the macro-cosmic affairs, the plight of the individual must be considered.
Five years after the accident he wrote "George Jackson", a fiercely driven ballad about the Black Panther leader " "George Jackson" who was murdered by a prison guard.
Phil Ochs..... (The Out Law And His Brain) Mind Control and Multiple Personality Disorder.... ....
"U.S. agents were able to destroy any persons reputation by inducing hysteria or excessive emotional responses, temporary or permanent insanity, suggest or encourage suicide , erase memory , invent double or triple personalities, (inside ones mind.") ---quote by the late Mae Brussells, Operation Chaos investigator etc. Ochs was a close chum of Bob Dylan, and thought Bob was the greatest poet ever. Together with others they dragged folk music away from the migration camps and union halls and into direct confrontation with the Eisenhower's looming military-industrial complex. Ochs denounced the American politics in the "Cops of the world". song:.......
" and when we've butchered your sons boys, have a stick of gum boys, we own half the world"...."OH CAN YOU SEE"?.. "AND THE NAME OF OUR PROFITS IS DEMOCRACY." He was the ultimate dissident song writer...he wrote
" the comic and the beauty queen are dancing on the stage .The raw recruits are lining up like coffins in a cage. Oh we are fighting in a war we lost before the war began" Not long before he died, one night after too many drinks, he drew down the CIA Director Wm. Colby, director of the murderous Phoenix Project in Vietnam. He claimed he put a contract out on his life for 100,000 dollars. "I told Colby he's got a half of year to live or get out of Vietnam or he is dead. They can kill me but he is dead" he said. (He as well was certain that Gloria Steinem, editor of Ms. Magazine and famous feminist is a CIA agent) Ochs was founder of the Yippee party, sang with protesters, and appeared as a witness for the trail of the Chicago Seven. His lyrics were considered so inflammatory that he was banned from the air-waves. The FBI did not refrain from amassing a huge file on him, and the feeling that he was never alone unnerved him. He wrote "take everything I own, take the tap from my phone, and leave my life alone, My life alone! He was tarred as a communist and a threat to national security. His friends said Ochs was convinced he would be assassinated. He was driven to drink by the radio black-listing his music and the ongoing surveillance and harassments and his nerve gave out. He lived in a perpetual state of paranoia. His vocal cords were crushed by "thugs."
He developed a right wing pseudo personality called John Train who he wrote about:
On the first day of summer 1975," Phil Ochs "was murdered in the Chelsea Hotel by John Train," Ochs said in a taped interview. "for the good of societies, public and "secret," he needed to be gotten rid of." He also made reference to his Pseudo personality in song fragments in an album never recorded re: "Phil Ochs checked into the Chelsea Hotel, there was blood on his clothes, Train Train Train, the outlaw and his brain.
my note: I have read accounts of cloning since the 50's, Nazi scientists brought it here, when they joined the CIA and NASA, and traded secrets... . Lots of hi-tech knowledge kept secret, some things are described in Jim Keith's book "Secret and Suppressed" and others. (End of note.)
Ochs actually now believed he was working for the CIA., writes biographer Marc Elliot.( Ochs also referred to N.Y. Cornell Hospital in mysterious lists) "Train" hinted that if Ochs had been a commercial success "they"(CIA) would have killed his host personality. . "Colby and Co. would have been more than happy to put a slug thru his head at that point, "said Train, the alternate personality. Ochs committed suicide on April 9, 1976, by hanging. This was the same year of the book "the Control of Candy Jones" by Donald Bain., (a study of CIA mind control experimentation, Candy was also an MPD, CIA created personalities, who carried out covert assignments, a marionette with an inner Nazi personality. She worked without her knowledge as a CIA operative for 12 years. Her final post-hypnotic command was suicide, which was intervened by her husband, talk show host John Nebel. (the book is out of print, I have a copy) It is very probable that "John Train" was programmed to kill Philip Ochs the host personality.
Another musician with repressed memory of child-hood trauma was Peter Townsend ("Who" guitarist). In 1999 it occurred to him that certain phrases from rock opera "TOMMY" were not fiction but his life. He filled in the blanks from his childhood amnesia.
CHAPTER 10.... Who Killed The Kennedys And Sal Mineo
(Rebel Without A Cause)......
Actor Sal Mineo was stabbed to death in a parking lot after signing on to play Sirhan Sirhan in an upcoming movie regarding JFK. (CIA assassination and post-hypnotic programming were the major themes of the movie.) Elliot Mintz talk show host for ABC, he later became Bob Dylan and the Lennon's publicist) he was buried in research with Mineo, regarding JFK killing. They became convinced Sirhan was innocent. The movie production disagreed and Mineo pulled out of the picture. After he was killed the media revealed in his secret life of bi-sexuality, and the murder was taken as homophobia. Gay Bars were closing in fear, and Hollywood stars took refuge behind locked doors. Michael Ruppert a former LAPD officer left the department to expose his CIA trained colleagues. He claims "Sirhan was hypno-programmed using hypnosis, drugs and torture by Rev. Jerry Owen and CIA Mind-Control Specialist Wm. Bryan at the stable where he worked months before the shooting. The LAPD concealed evidence implicating the CIA in shooting. The channels of the intelligence world swarmed with crooks and killers.
Conservative Evangelist Billy Graham was President Nixon's celebrated "spiritual advisor". Then there was LA's gangster corrupt public servant and wealthy gambling czar Mickey Cohen.(who "claimed "to be a friend of Sal Mineo) The former hit-man Cohen contacted the press after Mineos death to boost that he was his pal. Cohen was also chummy with Nixon, and his entourage. In 1968, Cohen was coined the godfather of the West Coast Mafia gambling ops. When Cohen was close to death he opened up to investigative reporter Chuck Ashman, Ashman said, "Mickey Cohen told me the tale of his being paid off to fake a conversion and dose of Christianity for Billy Grahams N.Y. crusade. Two of Graham's staff had passed more than 10,000 dollars to Mickey and his family. We found the dates and the amounts and even the checks" Cashmon said.
Cohen was the first bridge linking the killers of Robert Kennedy and Sal Mineo. He was on friendly terms with Carlos Marcellos, mob boss, who ran with David Ferrie, CIA corrupt ops., who was investigated by Jim Garrison in the connection of killing of JFK. Cohen was also a chum with Jack Ruby. Cohen was also a friend of Melvin Belli, Jack Ruby's defense attorney. He also controlled the Santa Anita race-track where Sirhan was employed. Mickey Cohen's circle of friends and his appearance in the limelight after the Mineo killing begs question on Hollywood power brokers. Sirhan and Cohen were close to Desi Arnez, (Producer) of I Love Lucy .Arnez was an anti Castro Cuban exile leader. In 1966 Sirhan wrote in his notebook that he landed a job at the stables Corona Breeding Farm co-owned by Desi Arnez, Buddy Ebsen, Dale Robertson, ultra conservatives, and TV personalities were well acquainted with Sirhan. Sirhan was known as a fervent anti-communist. Attorney, Russell Parsons, Sirhan's attorney, showed no effort to make known that Sirhan was in the wrong position to kill Senator Kennedy, he was shot from behind and Sirhan stood in front of Kennedy.
CHAPTER 11.... Project Walrus: John Lennon........
Mark-David Chapman chose to plead not guilty due to "following the direction of his voices".. His attorney J. Marks punctuated the plea "by reason of insanity". Chapman testified "I can hear their thoughts, I can hear them talking, but not from the outside, from the inside" Not one of the three psychiatrists at the trial explored the possibility of Mind-Control. In 1977 Chapman lost his fundamentalist religion and became a Satanist.. At 19, 1n 1975, Chapman signed onto the YMCA, (international camp counselor program) and was sent to Beirut where he allegedly received instructions in lethal arts at the CIA training camp school of terror. (There was a known "experiment in Mind Control unit" for the army in Lebanon.). In 1980 he surfaced in New York, and mailed a letter to an Italian address. The Dakota (residence of the Lennon's) was given as a return address. There was a reference to his" mission" in N.Y. It was returned to New York, the address not found in Italy, where it sat for three years in the dead letter bin, and finally delivered to the Dakota. Yoko Ono glanced at the letter and dropped it in her deranged file. In 1983, head of security, Mahoney, found the letter. This was evidence of premeditated murder and conspiracy. The letter vanished and reappeared slightly altered, the post-date now was 1981. The "mission" statement was missing...
Elliot Mintz, friend of Sal Mineo ,was instrumental in exposing "Project Walrus" as a conspiracy regarding Lennon. He had been Lennon's chum too and publicist since 1971. Mintz recalls that some of Yoko's body guards were, at the time, New York Police officers. It is very difficult for a private citizen to legally possess a weapon in New York. The people who can are off duty officers. It is thus, a common celebrity arrangement. There were many files with missing contents at Yoko's apt. after Lennon was killed. Listening devices were planted at the Dakota and once swept clean would reappear. There had been numerous attempts on Yoko's life. One man was arrested at airport who had made a call that he was coming to finish the job and kill Yoko and Sean. There were also calls made to tell her body guards were going to kill her. Sean Lennon said, "I grew up afraid my mother and I were going to be killed".
After John's murder the first promoting of Project Walrus was the ruining of his reputation. John had known he was wire-tapped and was justifiably paranoid. After Watergate he filed a lawsuit for wiretap and surveillance and made some progress. Justice Dept. never would admit it actually carried out the wiretap and blamed it on other possibilities. After he got his green card he gave up the litigation. Lennon overcame his fear of federal harassment and gave public statements that were anti-republican.
Killing Lennon was only the first step. All that he signified must be defaced. That was the principle objective of Walrus. His diaries were stolen and returned later with extra entries and some entries altered. Fred Seaman wrote a defamatory book on Lennon. Seaman was to be executive of Lennon's archives, and much was feigned regarding their bond. He told friends he was going to discredit Ono at all costs. The goal was to drive her to a nervous breakdown and discredit her attempt to set straight the public record. The "walrus crew" anticipated immense profits. Dead Lennon's=$$$ $$....... money. ....
The events at the Dakota began to sound like the Movie "Gaslight". (In which a husband tries to drive his wife crazy by reality distortion) Yoko began sleeping badly. One of Yoko's assistants, wracked by stress began packing a gun at all times. He said "you do not know how big this is. The people doing this are too big to fight." To discredit Lennon and Yoko and the Peace movement was a major part of Operation Walrus. (But it didn't and IT WILL NOT, "WE SHALL OVERCOME", SHANT WE YOKO AND SEAN ET AL???
CHAPTER 12... What Cha Gonna Do? The Deaths of Marley and Tosh........ ....
"Vampires do not come out to bite your neck anymore, instead they cause something destructive to happen that will spill blood. And those invisible vampires will get their meal "Peter Tosh. Peter Tosh, like Marley was a widely influential civil rights agitator, and like other black activists before him he was gunned down. He died in 1987 at age 43. He was upset with the treatment of his people. Tosh went to Trench Town to live with an uncle after the aunt he was living with died. It was there he met the young Bob Marley, and taught him to play guitar. They got together with Bunny Wailer and the trio called themselves the Wailin Wailers. They were drastically underpaid. Record producers are notorious for pocketing money. (dem pirates and dem thieves). Peter Tosh always let his feelings be known. He cared more about principles and morals than popularity and fame. He said "they know I do not support POLITRICKS and games, my duty is to unify the people." He and MarleY had some wrangling and he left the group, and went on his own. Destabilsation tactics were employed, as well as political violence and sabotage (etc.) from the CIA...... with pernicious attempts to wreck the economy of their country.. The new weapon and the new menace was DESTABILIZATION.
Bob Marley held onto the Wailer name and took on new members. The peoples National Party asked them to play at Smile Jamaica concert. He agreed.
In Nov. a death squad came to Marley's home and started shooting. They shot bullets into his manager, and one in his wife's' Rita's head, as she tried to get their 5 children out of the house. They survived. The last bullet creased Marley's breast below his heart and drilled deep into his arm. Marley would sing "Ambush in the night, all guns aiming at me." This did not stop them performing at the Smile Jamaica concert.. "War"....... "Until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that now hold our brothers, in Angola, in Mozambique, in subhuman bondage, have been toppled utterly destroyed... everywhere is war.
Carl Colby, son of CIA head Wm. Colby, came to the concert and posed as crew and got back stage where he gave a gift to Marley, a pair of boots. Former Black Panther Lee Lew-Lee was close to Marley and he thinks Marley's cancer started with the boots. He claims there was a link of copper wire attached to the boots, which hurt his foot when he tried them on and had to be removed. (It might have been treated chemically with a carcinogenic toxin.) Marley later broke his toe and found out it was cancerous, it spread. He did not trust main-stream medicine and continued to perform. He knew by 1977 he was dying and compressed a lifetime of music into a few years.
Something of a Caribbean CIA "POGROM" (A NAZI TERM) was underway via Kissinger and Co. There was emphasis on PSYCHOLOCAL OPERATIONS which became arson, banking assassination, disruption of the now Manley's democratic socialist rule. Political violence was stoked and arsenal of weapons supplied. This was all mostly financed by Hard Drugs, which disrupted the Rasta movement and marijuana. They wanted marijuana legalized. Their chosen weapon in the Rasta Movement was free expression and they were crucified for it. Tosh was busted and beaten almost to death and it made his music more vengeful. Secret Police and the CIA tailed him thru it all. Grotesque human rights violations were commonplace. Marley found out he had a brain tumor. He sang " these songs of freedom is all I ever had, emancipate yourself from MENTAL SLAVERY." He was observed rubbing his forehead and grimacing while performing. One woman explained "Hidden lasers were fixed to spotlights above the stage and burned out his brain" Fellow Rasta's heard about an alternative doctor in Jamaica, who advised Marley to talk to a Doctor Josef Issels, a holistic immuno therapist in a Bavarian village. He went. The Dr. said "I hear you are one of the most dangerous black men in the world." Issels medical career did not hold up under scrutiny, during WW2 he had worked hand in hand with Dr.(Nazi) Mengele (angel of death) in research in Poland, at the Auschwitz camp. The Wailers found this out after his death.
Issels told Bob he could cure him and did sadistic procedures that left him in agony. After visits the Wailor's said "he is killing Bob" He also cut off his dreadlocks. He was in the hands of the doctor who had been the accomplice of Mengele in horrific Medical experiments against what they considered "sub humans". His mother said " he was starving and wasting away , and he would fall into fits of shaking, etc" Marley weighed 82 pounds on the day of his death. May 11, 1980. (HIS MUSIC LIVES ON)
Peter Tosh found the bloodshed and hypocrisy of death squad justice in the Third World unbearable He was obsessed with the hidden evil. By 1987 the year of Tosh murder Jamaica musicians were censored by the prevailing politics. Witnesses and friends insist his murder was a political hit. They were convinced Tosh was killed for his statements on Human Rights , Black liberation and the legalization of Marijuana. Tosh was throwing a small party at home when Mike Robertson, a local radio host answered the door. Leppo Leppan, an old buddy from Trenchtown days stepped in. Behind him were two clean-cut looking strangers, professional hit-men, they insisted on talking to Tosh at gun-point. Shots were fired and three people were dead.
Shortly afterward the N.Y. City apartment of Tosh was entered and burglarized, (such as the aftermath of Hendrix death). Two out of three of the Tosh killers remain at large. One hit-man was said to be a policeman, (of course Leppan was convicted.)
CHAPTER 13...... Gang War Sons Of Chaos.......
Rap artist Tupac Shakur was gunned down at a stop-light in Las Vegas. There was the police strategy of disinformation, ignoring of witnesses, and the presence of undercover agents from L.A. and N.Y at the murder of rapper "Notorious B.I.G.", as well. This suggests that both rappers were murdered by hit squads under the sanction of federal officers. Tupac's father said "It was clear to me form day one that the Las Vegas police never had any interest in solving the case of my sons murder," it was said " we dealt extensively with COINTELPRO (FBI) issues. We worked around a lot of political prisoners and the black liberation movement over the years. This shaped Tupac into the person he was. The family operated the "Center for Black Survival." They had a youth group called "The New African Panthers" and Tupac became the chairperson for it."
The agony of the Rap industry was exacerbated in March 1997 by killing 24 yr. old Brooklyn rap artist Notorious B.I.G. in L.A. This happened after he had attended the annual 'Soul Train' Music awards, by an unidentified gun-man. Tupac's father said in a letter excerpt:
"we do know that Brother Biggie was a part of an industry that has been under attack from the highest form of government officials. They have targeted Tupac, Sister Souljah, IceT, and Ice Cube, just to name a few. This is reportedly due to the content of the lyrics..."IF" this was the case why would devil-worshippers (music-artists) not be hounded out also? (They openly worship the devil in a so-called God fearing country.) Their lyrics preach mayhem, destruction, death to parents, and even government; whereas our rapper love-ones wanted to explain their pain and identify from where they came, with hopes for a better tomorrow; if all things were fair. We believe that history has demonstrated that the murders of black people(young and old) who can have a profound impact, those who refuse to bow down, have been targeted by government at its highest level.
What we must understand is that our warriors are needed when it has been proven beyond contradiction that the C.I.A. were principal importers of Crack Cocaine and Cocaine into the 'HOOD', with blatantly racist drug laws, to set into motion tactics of genocide to destroy or lock away our brothers and sisters for the rest of their lives.
Pay attention to the game that is being played on/against us! Search for TRUTH! Don't look at who shot them, but why? Don't be fooled by the media, that has never shown real concern for our welfare." Dr. Mutulu Shakur
Dr. Mutulu Shakur's conviction that SECRET POLICE killed his stepson and Notorious B.I.G. proves to be increasingly feasible.
CHAPTER 14......... False God Syndrome.........
Death of Michael Hutchene 1997, M. Hutchence was found tethered by his neck to a door frame. He too was an activist, who willed the lion share of his fortune to Amnesty International and the Green Party. He was found at the Ritz-Carleton in Sydney Australia. The media concocted scenes of SM but he was found with a broken hand and lacerations and had taken a bad beaten. His friends said he was not depressed and he was against suicide. There were rumors of the "MOB" involved in his investments, possibly unknown to him. He died penniless due to "investments and trusts" and his family had to fight for his money.
He knew Gianni Versace, famous designer who was gunned down, and was also said to be possibly mafia involved, although he denied it angrily (A dead mourning bird was found by the Versace body, a symbol of a hit-man).
The funeral of Versace was attended by Diana Spencer, the Princess of Wales, only a month before her own death. As it happened another friend of Hutchence was Dodi Fayed, someone said to have mob links. Dodi's uncle was arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi of the Iran-Contra Fame.
Dodi and Diana were killed in a car accident four months before Hutchence died.
THE DEEP POLITICS OF MUSIC....... ...
Roger Bunn director of the Music Industry Human Rights Association (MIHRA), in the U.K., lives in the eye of the corporate music beast. These are excerpts from letters form Bunn:
Re: M.Hutchene. . "So that's it, huh? Death due to hanging? Sort of unusual that, even for the music industry. Those wonderful featured artist really light up the sky every now and then. Maybe we should consider making the poor darlings an endangered species? When they reach their peak it probably means they are worth more to the conglomerates dead than live. Think about that next time you go out to by your conglomerate primitive/folk music, or a well-known movie. You add strength to the cartel Monopoly. The music industry turns over 120 billion dollars a year. In the music industry there is no such thing as "Real Competition".
"Music Industry Is the Richest Industry on the Planet, by providing the public with a marketing of FALSE GOD SYNDROME...
When an artists' "usefulness" to a conglomerate is over things can get a little sticky."(End of letter quote).
Swing Kids involves a very small footnote to a very large historical event. In Nazi Germany in 1939, we learn, while Hitler was rounding up Jews and launching World War II, a small group of kids wore their hair long and danced to the swing music of such banned musicians as Benny Goodman and Count Basie. Occasionally they got into fights with the brownshirts of the Hitler Youth Brigades.
If the Swing Kids had evolved into an underground movement dedicated to the overthrow of Nazism, we might be onto something here. But no. A title card at the end of the film informs us that some of the kids died at the hands of the Nazis, and others were forced into the German army and killed in battle ...  Roger Ebert, Film Review, March 5, 1993
In 1967, an increasingly subversive form of music melded with politics in San Francisco. Still eclipsed by federal classification are the tactics of the intelligence sector in the destabilization of the lives of politically-tuned musicians on the fringe of the anti-war movement, as revealed before the Senate Intelligence Committee in a leaked intelligence memorandum submitted for the record on April 26, 1976:
Show them as scurrilous and depraved. Call attention to their habits and living conditions, explore every possible embarrassment. Send in women and sex, break up marriages. Have members arrested on marijuana charges. Investigate personal conflicts or animosities between them. Send articles to the newspapers showing their depravity. Use narcotics and free sex to entrap. Use misinformation to confuse and disrupt. Get records of their bank accounts. Obtain specimens of handwriting. Provoke target groups into rivalries that may result in death ["Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans: Book. II, April 26 1976, Senate Committee with Respect to Intelligence Report]
For the first time since its creation, the warfare state meticulously erected by the Dulles brothers, J. Edgar Hoover, Dean Acheson, General Douglas MacArthur, Henry Kissinger, Richard Nixon and an army of anti-Communist cold warriors was threatened by an increasingly militant segment of the population. "Fascists" and "Pigs" burned in effigy on campus from sea to psychedelic sea.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation rose to the challenge. Many rock musicians of the day struggled for a place in the American pantheon of stardom only to experience ferocious political repression. "That's what killed us," recollects Roger McGuinn, lead guitarist for the Byrds. "We got blackballed after drug allegations in 'Eight Miles High,"' and Hoover's spies never seemed far away. "They'd been chasing after us because somebody left some hashish in the airplane coming back from England. So they came down on us in a recording studio and said, 'Whose is this?' Of course nobody claimed it." On one occasion, on tour in Iowa, David Crosby, lounging on the balcony of a Holiday Inn, whiled away the time before a concert firing .22 caliber blanks with a slingshot at a brick wall about thirty feet down. A group of "Rednecks" staying at the Motel played poker at the ground level, and riled by the tiny explosions, "started climbing over the balcony, fuming, 'Guys died in Iwo Jima for punks like you," McGuinn recalls. "They were pounding on Crosby, when suddenly the FBI appeared. You know, 'FBI, son. Break it up!' They took these guys out and sent them off to their room. I don't know if it was just a coincidence, but what were [the FBI] doing in the middle of Iowa? From then on I used to be looking over my shoulder, thinking the government was after me." 
The deaths of Byrds' guitarists Clarence White in July, 1973, and Gram Parsons two months later, have long been grist for speculation. Clarence White and his brothers were packing the car after a show in Palmdale, California -- the home of Lockheed (military contractor and CIA haunt) -- when Clarence was struck by a drunk driver named Yoko Ito. Alan Munde, a banjo player for the White Brothers when they toured England and Sweden in the spring of 1973, recalled in an interview taped at the Tennessee Banjo Institute that White then lived "near Lancaster, California, where his mother and dad had lived.... But that's where Edwards Air Force Base was, and that's where there was a lot of aircraft industry up there, and Roland [White's dad] worked there ... and then Clarence bought a house ... and [performed] at a club, you know, that Clarence had played many many times before he was with the Byrds, to pick, and was just comin' out loadin' up the stuff, and had put the stuff in the trunk and walked around to get into the car, and the lady came by and side- swiped the car and hit him, and knocked him on down the road, and Roland had just walked around to the front, and he was -- you know, they don't know that, but he was hit also and knocked over the hood of the car, by the lady and you know, Clarence was, you know, 150 feet down the road." 
"The driver of the car, Yoko Ito," according to a brief in Nashville Babylon (1988) by Randall Riese, "was booked on suspicion of felony drunk driving and manslaughter." The glassy-eyed Ms. Ito was reportedly pregnant, yet had gone on an alcoholic binge, picked a fight in a bar and capped off the evening by running over a popular musician and dragging him down the road, completely unaware of the fatality. Clarence White came tumbling over the hood of her car, and yet she didn't know that she'd even struck a pedestrian.
White's close friend Gram Parsons, a sometime Byrd with his own band, the Flying Burrito Brothers, was laid low at the Joshua Tree Inn shortly after midnight, September 19, 1973 (one day before singer Jim Croce was killed in an airplane crash, resulting, according to press reports, in the filing of a $2.5-million lawsuit against the FAA by the singer's widow -- the tree that killed him was not indicated in the map of the airport runway prepared for Croce). "The circumstances of Gram's death were shrouded in mystery," writes Rolling Stone correspondent Ben Fong-Torres.  Initially, the press reported that Parsons died of "heart failure," like Jim Morrison before him, "due to natural causes." His death certificate, however, signed by Dr. Irving Root, states that Parsons was claimed by drug toxicity over a period of weeks. Traces of cocaine and amphetamine were detected in his urine, and a high concentration of morphine. The latter was found in his bile and liver. Convincing on the surface -- until it is considered that morphine toxicity requires that the drug be found in the blood. It wasn't. Forensic tests did detect alcohol, but no drugs were found in his bloodstream, so the cause of death was not an overdose, as many have since claimed, and drug toxicity is still possible but highly unlikely.
Dr. Root noted that Parsons had reached "toxic levels of drug intake," and sustained them for weeks. (The source of supply has never been publicly identified. A rumor has it that Gram had been buying drugs from a woman, now deceased.) Dr. Margaret Greenwald, a San Francisco coroner, told Fong-Torres that narcotics accumulate over time in the liver and urine. The morphine and trace deposits indicate not that they killed him, but that "he'd been using [those drugs] for a long period of time," she explained.  So the exact cause of death remains a mystery and there is no hope of exhumation to resolve critical inconsistencies because Parson's cadaver was stolen at the Los Angeles International Airport in transit to New Orleans for burial and burned at Joshua Tree.
The coffin heist was perpetrated by Phil Kaufman, road manager for the Flying Burrito Brothers. Kaufman was a fledgling Hollywood actor before he met Parsons. In the meantime, he'd been arrested on drug charges and sentenced to Terminal Island Correctional Institute in San Pedro, California. It was here that Kaufman met Charles Manson, then an aspiring rock musician. Kaufman wrote about his first contact with Manson in an autobiography, "there was a guy playing guitar in the yard one day at Terminal Island. And it was Charlie, singing his ass off." When Manson was released, Kaufman, from prison, put him in touch with contacts in the Los Angeles music industry. Kaufman was released from prison in 1968. He moved in with Manson and lived with him for a couple of months, met and befriended the Rolling Stones that summer, and in August was introduced to Parsons . Gram Parsons was one of many unexplained casualties on the periphery of Manson's cult.
Many musicians of note shared McGuinn's suspicion that Big Brother was stalking them. Evidence that they were not suffering from paranoid delusions was deposited in the 1980s at the FBI's reading room in Washington, D.C., scores of declassified files. This collection included seven pages of notes on Jimi Hendrix, 89 on Jim Morrison, and, oddly, 663 documents about Elvis Presley. (Presley's file opens early in his career, when "concerned" conservatives petitioned J. Edgar Hoover to "do something" about this swivel-hipped, slack-jawed, decadent despoiler of American adolescents. A former spy ripped off a letter to the FBI in 1956 to complain that Presley had masturbated on stage with his microphone to "arouse the sexual passions of teenage youth." The complainant confessed: "I feel an obligation to pass on to you my conviction that Presley is a definite danger to the security of the United States." )
But the attentions of Hoover's agents were lavished not only on Top 40 pop idols. Even a celebrated conductor of Leonard Bernstein's caliber could be stalked by the Feds -- the FBI monitored his every move for more than thirty years.
On July 30, 1994, the London Times reported "Intelligence files on [Leonard Bernstein] reveal that the bureau spent countless hours examining his links with associations deemed either Communist or subversive." Bernstein swore under oath in 1953 that he was not affiliated with the Communist Party in any way, and three decades of unrelenting spying by the Bureau, beginning in the mid-'40s, failed to produce a scrap of evidence to the contrary. "It also observed his support for the civil rights and anti-war movements, in particular the Black Panthers ... Bernstein, however, was known by both his friends and family as a man who espoused liberal causes in a totally arbitrary manner."  Bernstein was a liberal with an audience that respected his beliefs, and Hoover's secret police watched him as closely as they would any anarchistic, dope-addled rock idol.
One agent provocateur on the FBI payroll, Sarah Jane Moore, the would-be assassin of President Gerald Ford, observed the Bureau's counter-revolution from the inside. She described an atmosphere of cynical acrimony in a note to reporters curious about her motive in the assassination attempt:
"The FBI directed me to people and organizations seriously working for radical change ...
"There was no coordination not even any communication between these groups. The whole left as a matter of fact seemed disorganized, strife-ridden and weak. And I realized the reason for this was the FBI, whose tool I was, who clearly and correctly saw the strength and power of the idea of socialism, realized it represented a very real danger to our profit-motivated corporate state and who had declared total covert war against not only denim-clad revolutionaries but also against all progressive forces, even those working for the most acceptable 'American' reforms." She explained:
I listened with horror once to a bright young agent as he bragged about his abilities in the area of anonymous letter writing and other forms of character assassination, not of big important leaders, but of little people as soon as they showed any leadership potential. The Bureau's tactic is to cut them down or burn them out before they realize their potential.
I remember Worthington (my Bureau control) saying, "You don't seem to realize that this is war!" He thought the next two or three years would be the most crucial in our nation's history. His greatest fear at that time was that the left would rediscover the documents and ideas from the first and second American revolutions and use them to spark a new revolution.
He said that these words are as powerful today as ever and that properly used (actually he said "cleverly" used) the people could be aroused by these ideas and would fight again to achieve them.
That explains my political beliefs. It does not explain why in the name of a dream whose essence is a deep love for people and a belief in the essential beauty and worth of each individual, I picked up a gun intending to kill another human being.
When I was getting ready to go public regarding my spying activities, a journalist attempting to verify some facts was told by the FBI that if the story appeared I would be in danger.
This warning was repeated to me by the FBI with the additional suggestion that I should leave town. Charles Bates told me that of course they couldn't stop me from talking, but that I was placing myself in danger if the story appeared. He stated that at any rate he was not going to allow the FBI to be embarrassed. If there was anything they didn't like in the story they would simply see that it was edited out, that they had done that before, that he had "friends" on that particular paper somewhat higher up than the reporter level.
I had already had a phone call saying I was next that was just after the murder of a friend. Now friends and foes alike vied with each other to warn me, each claiming to have heard from sources they refused to name that I was to be "offed" or at the very least beaten.
Beyond a certain point pressure and threats are counter-productive. When one is threatened to a point where one is convinced; that is, when I finally accepted the fact that I was not going to be able to get away -- that I wasn't willing to pay the price -- the realization I would probably be killed ceased to frighten -- it brought instead a sense of freedom. 
Conservatives, blind to the slag-pile of political corruption within their own ranks, suspected a Soviet conspiracy in the rising challenge to authority and organized against the storm.
In 1970, three weeks after Nixon invaded Cambodia, Edwin Meese III -- the godfather of the far-right political school christened by the Washington Post (on January 26, 1984) the "Alameda Mafia," then Governor Ronald Reagan's legal affairs secretary -- observed in a McCarthyesque lecture delivered at a state law enforcement conference, "The challenge is clear. The enemies of society who are here in California are willing to sacrifice a generation of youth to obtain their objectives. They are not only willing but desirous of losing an international conflict. They will not stop at endangering life and indeed they have killed several and injured thousands." The solution: "Maximum photography, maximum evidence gathering by officers who are not involved in the actual [political demonstration] control activity" -- maximum spying, maximum keeping of secret files on private citizens. 
At the federal level, the CIA was already pursuing similar objectives under the aegis of an illegal domestic operation code-named CHAOS. Among the political targets of CHAOS, count Black Panther Geronimo Pratt, framed for the murder of two radicals on a tennis court in Santa Monica, California. Pratt was subsequently released from prison in June 1997, 27 years after his sentencing, because it was proven that a witness had lied on the stand.  The International Secretariat of Amnesty International issued a press release the following year citing the court's "failure to disclose crucial information about a key prosecution witness in the trial of Geronimo ji Jaga [Pratt] -- a former leader of the Black Panther Party released last year." This stonewall, insisted AI, "should result in the reversal of his conviction and finally put an end to 27 years of injustice."  Pratt is generally considered a target of COINTELPRO, the FBI's notorious counter-surveillance program, but Pratt is aware since requesting his files under FOIA that CHAOS agents hitched horses with the Bureau to drag the Panther into an erroneous conviction.
Politically active hippies were also fair game. One victim of the onslaught was the underground press, according to Donna Demac, an instructor in interactive telecommunications at NYU, "that diverse assortment of publications that ... empowered many of the social movements of the 1960s." The CIA and FBI "collected information on each paper's publisher, its sources of funds and its staff members. Many underground newspapers were put out of business when they were abandoned by advertisers who had been pressured by the FBI. The Bureau also created obstacles to distribution, fomented staff feuds and spread false information to create suspicion and confusion." 
The Central Intelligence Agency and its military counterparts, covert templars of the ruling caste, watched the dissent movement's rise with growing anxiety; the Operation was the Agency's response to civil unrest and cultural upheaval. If nothing else, the word CHAOS implied that officials of The Firm were aware of the social upheaval they were about to unleash upon an unsuspecting proletariat.
Freedom of Information Act requests for the most sensitive files are consistently denied.
"During six years [1967-1972], the Operation compiled some 13,000 different files, including files on 7,200 American citizens," concluded the Rockefeller Commission, which failed to pursue leads to settle critical allegations. The files inspected by the CIA's in-house committee concerned some 300,000 individuals and political organizations, and the CIA's Directorate of Operations created an index of some seven million names. 
Leaks were handled at the top. In April 1972, an article by Victor Marchetti, an ex-CIA officer, "CIA: The President's Loyal Tool," appeared in The Nation, charging the Agency with deceiving and manipulating the media, and co-opting the youth movement, cultural organizations and labor. William Colby, then the CIA's executive director, recruited John Warner, a deputy general counsel, to halt the publication of a book that Marchetti planned to publish on the criminalization of the CIA. Warner turned to White House aides John Ehrlichman, the head Plumber, and David Young, a right-wing extremist from Young Americans for Freedom, a Nazi front for "conservative" agents emigrating to the U.S. from Munich. Together, they obtained approval from President Nixon to drag Marchetti into court where US District Court Judge Albert V. Bryan, Jr. ordered him to submit the book to the Agency for redaction. 
Operation CHAOS was the inevitable mutation of covert domestic ops conceived during the Eisenhower administration and its directive to monitor emigre political groups on domestic soil. A reformed insider, Vern Lyon, former CIA undercover operative and current director of the Des Moines Hispanic Ministry, writes that the directive led the CIA to establish a network of proprietary companies and covers for its domestic operations. So widespread did the network become that in 1964, President Johnson allowed CIA Director John McCone to conceive "a new super-secret branch called the Domestic Operations Division (DOD), the very title of which mocked the explicit intent of Congress to prohibit CIA operations inside the US."
The classified charter of the DOD mandated the exercise of "centralized responsibility for the direction, support, and coordination of clandestine operational activities within the United States." This would include break-ins of foreign diplomatic sites at the request of the National Security Agency (NSA). Lyons: "The CIA also expanded the role of its 'quasi-legal' Domestic Contact Service (DCS), an operation designed to brief and debrief selected American citizens who had traveled abroad in sensitive areas." The DCS also helped with travel control by monitoring the arrivals and departures of US nationals and foreigners. In addition, the CIA reached out to former agents, officers, contacts and friends to help it run its many fronts, covers and phony corporations. This "old boy network" provided the CIA with trusted personnel to conduct its illicit domestic activities. 
A massive destabilizing effort was waged against the peace and civil rights movements. The Army's Counter-Intelligence Analysis Branch collected personality profiles, mug shots and compiled "blacklists" of anti-war activists, stored them on computer-files and microfilm reels. The Pentagon's intelligence operatives, disguised as reporters, gathered information at peace demonstrations -- the "Midwest Audiovisual News," an Army intelligence front, interviewed Abbie Hoffman at the 1968 police riot in Chicago. 
The military program came complete with "operations centers," direct lines to local police, teletype machines to field intelligence units, street maps, closed-circuit video, and secure communications channels. A 180-man "command center" appeared in 1968 following the riots in Detroit. By 1969, the center was housed in a $2.7-million war room in the cellar of the Pentagon. 
This was the year Richard Helms prepared a CIA research paper on the antiwar movement entitled "Restless Youth" for Henry Kissinger. The cover letter explained, "in an effort to round out our discussion of this subject, we have included a section on American students. This is an area not within the charter of this agency, so I need not emphasize how extremely sensitive this makes the paper. Should anyone learn of its existence it would prove most embarrassing for all concerned." But a small group at the CIA's Office of Security was already monitoring student organizations in the Washington, D.C. area. Helms expanded the domestic spying operation with the creation of the Special Operations Group (SOG), directed by Richard Ober, one of the "Deep Throat" candidates, to conduct "counterintelligence." This was the direct precursor of CHAOS. SOG operatives provided the CIA Office of Current Intelligence with scuttlebutt on the peace movement. Within a couple of years, domestic operations swelled to meet the perceived threat to military-industrial rule, even paralleling the growth of antiwar protest.  But invisibly, in the shadows of the resistance.
In 1974, investigative journalist Seymour Hersh exposed CHAOS in the New York Times. Hersh reported that the CIA had conducted a massive spying and covert operations program on domestic soil. The story inspired the Church and Pike hearings of 1975. These investigations verified Hersh's allegations. But the media, especially the leading newspapers and news weeklies, ridiculed and reviled Hersh. The Washington Post, Newsweek and editorial pages across the country actually questioned his sanity and dismissed the story as a whimsical "conspiracy theory." Time rushed to the Agency's defense. "Many observers in Washington who are far from naive about the CIA nevertheless consider its past chiefs and most of its officials highly educated, sensitive and dedicated public servants who would scarcely let themselves get involved in the kind of massive scheme described." 
1. Peter Wicke, a music historian at Hummboldt University in Berlin, emphasizes that the Nazi suppression of jazz and swing was motivated largely by economics. "January 30, 1933 marked a deep cut for some forms of popular music under the fascist dictatorship in Germany. The new ruling powers left no doubt about their role in the arts with the renewal of Germany. A once flowering European center of music expired into the Agony." Propaganda expenditures directed against the emergent musical movements "targeted the economic competition of the American music industry," and, oddly enough, "the Jewish population -- who had less to do with jazz than the other subpopulations of Germany." American recordings were banned, but Telefunken Studios artists Peter Kreuder's Orchestra, Heinz Wehner's Swing Band and Kurt Widmann were promoted in Nazi Germany, and the business of jazz recording continued after the prohibition was enacted against imports, "not undisputedly, but evenly, without closer inspection, minus the annoying competi tion from overseas." The corporate influence on Nazi policies concerning jazz and swing music contributed to "a beautiful banknote of private feeling" in Germany. See Peter Wicke, "Populare Musik im Faschistischen Deutschland: www2.huberlin.de/inside/fpm/wicke2htm .
2. Bruce Pollock, When the Music Mattered: The Musicians Who Made it Happen Tell How it Happened, New York Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1983, p. 86.
3. Randal Morton, "Alan Munde's Interview," Clarence White Chronicles, no 14, September 13, 1998.
4. Ben Fong Torres, Hickory Wind: The Life and Times of Gram Parsons, New York, St Martin's, 1991, p 228.
5. Fong-Torres, pp. 200-201.
6. Fong-Torres, pp 116-17.
7. "Rock Heroes on the FBI Record," Correspondent (UK), October 1, 1989.
8. Tom Rhodes, "Files show FBI tried to settle score with the maestro of radical chic: London Times, July 30, 1994, p. 11.
10. Edwin Meese, executive secretary to Governor Reagan, untitled lecture typescript, 1970, released under FOIA request.
11. Geronimo Pratt interviewed by former Black Panther Lee Lew-Lee, 1997 Angus Meredith, in Secrets: The CIA's War at Home (Berkeley. University of California Press, 1999): "The FBI's COINTELPRO [was] run in collaboration with CHAOS." (p 69).
12. "USA: Crucial information 27 years too late for Black Panther leader: Amnesty International press release, AI INDEX. AMR 51/41/98, 1 July 1998.
13. Donna A, Demac, Liberty Denied: The Current Rise of Censorship in America, New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1990, p 77.
14. Rockefeller Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States, June 1975, New York, Manor Books, pp 23, 41.
15. Angus Mackenzie, Secrets: The CIA's War at Home, Berkeley University of California Press, 1999, pp 43-44.
16. Verne Lyon, "Domestic Surveillance: The History of Operation CHAOS," Covert Action Information Bulletin, Summer 1990.
17. Blanche Wiesen Cook, "Surveillance and Mind Control: Howard Frazier, ed., Uncloaking the CIA, New York: The Free Press, 1978, p 178.
18. Daniel Brandt, "The 1960s and COINTELPRO: In Defense of Paranoia," NameBase NewsLine, no 10, July/September 1995.
19. Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA, New York: Pocket Books, 1979, pp 314-15.
20. Kathryn Olmsted, "Watchdogs or Lap Dogs?" Albuquerque Weekly Alibi, July 21, 1997.
TIME MACHINE: THE BIRTH OF TOP 40 RADIO AND ALAN FREED'S NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE (EARLY CIA, AND MOB INFLUENCES ON THE ROCK MUSIC INDUSTRY)
The Mafia was to be enlisted for the covert war against the counterculture, an incarnation of Operation Underworld (the WWII-era alliance between the military and the Mob to sabotage the Italians under Mussolini) on the domestic front, a natural since gangsters already dominated much of the popular music industry "The music business," Albert Goldman acknowledged in 1989, "has always been a dirty business with strong ties to organized crime and a long tradition of corrupting the media. One of the dangers that researchers in this field run is that they will stumble across something that will alarm the crooks, who are paranoid from the jump." Goldman reported that the lesson was driven home when Linda Kuehl, a friend writing a book on the life of Billie Holiday, was killed in Washington, D.C. by a plummet from the terrace of her hotel room. Goldman phoned police and learned that they had ruled suicide out as the motive (she'd been cleaning her face with cold cream when she fell). He also "learned that she had been running scared because she was getting calls from strangers who kept admonishing her, 'Why don't you just write about the music?"' 
In the mid-'60s, CHAOS officials and the Mob both eyed the rising tide of political rock music askance. Each had an incentive for exercising control over the industry. The CIA was in the business of decimating the New Left and popular music had, in the wink of a half-note, been transformed into a viper pit of long-haired "communards" screaming for revolution and an end to the war in Vietnam. The Mafia, of course, wanted more constrictive financial control over the recording industry, the artists it signed, everything from production to distribution.
It's not as though these two powerful entities, the CIA and organized crime, were unknown to the industry. Top 40, the reigning broadcast format in America, owes its very existence to the NSC-CIA-Mafia combination.
In the beginning there was Morris Levy. Morris began his career as an appendage of the Genovese Family and rapidly rose through the ranks. He was enlisted by the Mob as a juke box promoter in the 1940s. His brother was gunned down by business rivals who mistook him for Morris -- who lived to become one of the most feared men in the business. He was the owner of the famous Birdland jazz club in New York City, and a partner, with George Goldner, a seedy record promoter, for the Rama label (home of R&B doo-wop group The Crows) and a subsidiary, Gee Records (Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers, The Regents).  These labels and further subsidiaries (Roulette, End) pumped out apolitical bubblegum (Tommy James, Little Anthony, The Shangri-Las) through the 1960s.
Gee Records was founded by Levy and Goldner specifically to draw in Alan Freed, then a rising R&B concert promoter in Cleveland (he oversold one concert and thereby incited the first rock 'n' roll riot), to New York. Freed was hired at Gee in the Fall of 1954 to work his promotional genius, and from the gun he and Goldner were close allies. Levy did not entirely trust his new partner, however, and schemed to bring him under control, eventually arranging a meeting in which Alan Freed -- drunk at the time -- was convinced to sell his share of the label to Levy. The Mafioso now had a controlling interest in the company, one of the first to enter the rock 'n' roll market.
John Elroy McCaw, another early kingpin in the genre, was also instrumental in bringing Alan Freed to New York. McCaw was a veteran of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the predecessor of the CIA. After the war, McCaw bought a New York radio station, WINS at Seven Central Park West, and geared the station's programming to hockey and basketball games. But by the early 1950s, the station pioneered the very first disk jock format, twenty-five minutes of Tony Bennett, Perry Como, Steve Lawrence and other popular crooners of the day, followed by five minutes of news. It soon became clear to the programming directors at WINS that the jock was the radio personality of the future. When Freed arrived in New York, he found himself in the historically unprecedented position of shaping not only the music youth would dance to (under Mafia control), but the medium that delivered it, as well (at a station run by a veteran intelligence agent).
Freed, at a starting salary of $75,000, was expected to boost the ratings, and toward this end he had no use for Perry Como. Rick Sklar, then an apprentice copywriter and producer, reports that when Freed arrived in New York, along with him "came hundreds of 45-RPM singles that he piled helter-skelter in an old five-shelf supply cabinet in our office. That chaotic, uncatalogued collection would become the most influential record library in commercial radio, imitated by stations everywhere. It would change the sound of popular music in America and the world for generations."
The WINS jocks couldn't know that in ten years time the invention of rock radio would inspire a subculture of anti-war activists and flag-burning bohemians to "tune in." Dissent inevitably died with a drugged whimper. Drugs would enter the equation of music plus youth with the politics of heroin and LSD. Hallucinogens fragged organized resistance to the war, but they were only one of many dubious contributions the Agency has made to American culture. Strains of drugged hedonism found their way to Top 40 radio with tambourine men peddling magic swirling trips, pink-eyed adolescents wringing their hands at mother's little helpers. The surf wave of Top 40 radio was transformed into a spawning ground of counter-cultural self-medication, and with the escalation of the Vietnam War, quasi-Marxist politics infused with strains of mystical idealism.
Ironically, "Top 40," the pied piper of rebellion, owes its very existence to McCaw, Alan Freed's boss, the entrepreneurial brains behind "big beat" radio and an old covert warrior at ease in the closed chambers of Washington's national security "elite". "Elroy's government contacts were extensive," writes Sklar. "He had maintained many of his OSS connections after the war and was quite prob-ably still engaged in government intelligence work during the time that he owned WINS. McCaw associates tell of saying good-bye to him in New York, with plans to meet him in Chicago the next day, only to have McCaw call from Cairo and cancel the meeting ... He was a member of the Advisory Council of the National Security Council, placed there, along with other key industry figures, by his old boss, Air Force General Hap Arnold."  Elroy McCaw was the "unauthorized civilian" whose inadvertent admission to an NSC meeting at the White House, chaired by John F. Kennedy -- who had never met the man and thought him an intruder -- caused a press furor in 1961. (The NSC and General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold commanding general of US Army Air Forces during WWII, both played significant roles in seeding the prevailing Cold War culture. The NSC was patterned after Hitler's security council, and its jurisdiction was to oversee the CIA by dictate of the National Security Act of 1947.  McCaw was therefore instrumental in determining CIA policy.)
The yawping, warbling, mind-numbing repetitions of Top 40 radio were given trial runs first in Omaha, Kansas City and New Orleans. The format was fine-tuned at WINS under McCaw, and the radio industry would never be the same. "WINS hit the air in September of 1957," Sklar recalls, "with sharp jingles, screaming contests and promotions, and Top 40 music. The city had never heard anything like it." The jocks had personalities, an unprecedented development. "News was introduced with ear-splitting sensationalist effects ... A different sound was played each hour. One newscast would be introduced by a woman screaming, another by a fire engine siren, and still another by the sound of machine guns." 
The station lured more listeners than any other radio station in New York within a month of breaking out the hit parade format. But corruption thrived behind the DJs mindless bluster, whistles and the latest "Pick Hit of the Week."
Alan Freed, the godfather of hit radio, was scapegoated by Orrin Hatch's House Legislative Oversight subcommittee probe of payola in 1959. He was also very nearly a target of assassination the year before. In 1958, McCaw called Freed into the WINS owner's office and announced his intention to fire him. The DJ was so shocked that he canceled a concert and spent the entire day pleading for his job. Freed was still in McCaw's office when a rock promoter, enraged by the sudden cancellation, exploded through the rear entrance to the radio station, gun in hand, searching for Freed. Sklar's pregnant wife, Sydelle, and Inga Freed were standing at the Coca-Cola machine. They immediately bolted into the record library and locked the door behind them. The gunman was unable to find Freed, who was still pleading with McCaw in the latter's office, and stomped out of the station in a cloud of disgust. 
1. Albert Goldman, "Rock's Greatest Hitman," Penthouse, September 1989, p 222.
2. Marc Eliot, Rockonomics: The Money Behind the Music, New York. Citadel, 1989, pp 47-48.
3. Rick Sklar, Rocking America: How the Al1-Hit Radio Stations Took Over, New York, St Martin's, 1984, pp 11, 17 and 19.
4. Sklar, p 54 John E. McCaw died in 1969. He sired four sons, including Craig McCaw, who has been as influential in the molding of media and culture as his spook father. McCaw, Jr. entered the cable industry early. A Craig McCaw timeline: 1973: Craig takes over the daily operation of a small cable television operation in Centralia owned by him and his three brothers. 1974: The company enters the radio common carrier (paging) industry. 1982: The company is granted spectrum licenses made available by the FCC. 1986: The company buys out MCI's cellular and paging operations. 1987: Deciding to invest heavily in the emerging wireless industry, the company sells its cable holdings. 1990: McCaw Cellular purchases 52 percent of LIN Broadcasting stock -- LIN owned interests in five of the top ten cellular markets. 1991: McCaw initiates an upgrade of its systems from analog to digital. 1992: The Wireless Data Division contracts with UPS to track packages throughout the US. 1994: McCaw merges with AT&T (Source 1995 AT&T press release). The latest Forbes Four Hundred report notes that in 1994, the McCaw family "agreed to invest up to $1.1 billion in Nextel Communications." All four brothers are exceedingly wealthy. Bruce R McCaw, Forbes reports, is worth $800 million; Keith W. McCaw, $775 million; John Elroy McCaw, Jr., $750 million.
5. Mae Brussell, "Why is the Senate Watergate Committee Functioning as Part of the Cover-Up," Realist, August 1971, p 22 .After WWII, a Nazi base was established in the Caribbean. The NSC, "patterned from German intelligence, provided the espionage framework inside the White House for our political assassinations as well as the Watergate 'Plumbers' and election manipulations."
"JOHN ELROY MCCAW, A SCION OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL DURING THE EISENHOWER REGIME AND THE PROPRIETOR OF WINS IN NEW YORK, THE ORIGINATOR OF THE 'HIT PARADE.' FORMAT. MCCAW TOOK OVER THE STATION WITH A MEAGER DOWN PAYMENT, PAID A TOTAL OF $450.000 FOR IT, AND THE NEXT DECADE SOLD WINS FOR $10 MILLION, THEN A RECORD BUY-OUT FOR A RADIO STATION"
BOOKS WERE BANNED, BOOK SHOPS CLOSED DOWN. OFFICES AND SOCIAL CENTRES WERE BROKEN INTO AND THEIR FILES WERE REMOVED, DOUBTLESS TO BE FED INTO THE POLICE COMPUTERS. UNDERGROUND PAPERS AND MAGAZINES COLLAPSED UNDER THE WEIGHT OF OFFICIAL PRESSURE, GALLERIES AND CINEMAS HAD WHOLE SHOWS CONFISCATED. ARTISTS, WRITERS, MUSICIANS AND COUNTLESS UNIDENTIFIED HIPPIES GOT DRAGGED THROUGH THE COURTS TO ANSWER TRUMPED-UP CHARGES OF CORRUPTION, OBSCENITY, DRUG-ABUSE, ANYTHING THAT MIGHT SILENCE THEIR VOICES. PENNY RIMBAUD, CRASS (ANARCHIST UK PUNK BAND)
The nation entered a mode of heightened security after the appearance of alien youth that grew its hair long and balked at the idea of hurling itself into the Asian inferno. This was the summer of the Denver Pop Festival at Mile High Stadium, featuring Jimi Hendrix, Joe Cocker, the Mothers of Invention and Credence Clearwater Revival, among other emerging acts. The festival was marred by slugfests between club-swinging cops, gatecrashers, and-foreshadowing the hellish landscape of Altamont-bikers hired to maintain security. Thousands in the stadium were forced onto the field when tear gas wafted through the stands, a police response to bottle-throwing gate-crashers. The next day, the police arrived armed to the molars. Some 300 cops with police dogs assembled at the foot of a hill where a group of non-paying long-hairs sat listening to "free music." The police brought along a weapon called the "Pepper Fog," a device that pumped plumes of tear gas and scalding mace. They were also armed with high-caliber rifles loaded with bird shot.
The mood of the crowd was idyllic. Nevertheless, the authorities cranked up the Pepper Fog machine, and its loud motor attracted the attention of some concert-goers who wandered down the hill to investigate. A single watermelon rind flung by a young rocker or provocateur arced into the platoon of cops. Immediately, the rind toss was addressed by a huge cloud of choking and blistering Pepper Fog. Everyone on the hill swallowed the gas.
Police clubbed anyone caught scaling the fence to crash the concert, even women, into a sorry state of submission. To force a mass confrontation, the men in blue marched into the stadium with their rifles raised -- but there was no show of resistance from the crowd. After the event, the Denver police chief mislaid blame for the violence on the American Liberation Front, a group of anti-war activists who had recently held a "live-in" at City Park to demonstrate that "revolution through music is possible." 
A clandestine counter revolt was waged by the intelligence agencies and their allies in the corporate sector. Former FBI agent Paul Rothermeil told reporter Peter Noyes that he had been asked by Texas Millionaire Nelson Bunker Hunt (his father, bombastic ultra-conservative H.L Hunt, was a suspect in the killing of John Kennedy; Nelson himself was at one time among the world's wealthiest men, the sole title-holder to all of the oil reserves in Libya) to form a "killer force" in Southern California to prey on liberal organizations and peace activists. Hunt's death squads would recruit from the John Birch Society (a fascist front that received generous financial support from the Texan) and train in the desert. The killers were to be armed with exotic "gas guns" manufactured in Europe. These beauties induced heart attacks that deceived any coroner. Rothermeil refused the offer, and shortly thereafter discovered that his telephone had been tapped by the millionaire's private security force. 
LSD appeared on the streets as if on cue to destabilize student dissent. More potent drugs used in federally-sponsored behavior modification studies also found their way to society at large. STP, a hallucinogen developed by the Dow Chemical Company in 1964, was considered an "incapacitating agent" by scientists on the CIA payroll. Research subjects were rendered semi-comatose for several days after dropping the hallucinogen. In 1967, Lee and Shlain report in Acid Dreams, "for some inexplicable reason, the formuIa for STP was released to the scientific community at large."
Five thousand tablets of STP were distributed in Haight-Ashbury as the "Summer of Love" embarked. "Few had heard of the drug, but that didn't matter to the crowd of eager pill poppers. They gobbled the gift as if it were an after-dinner mint." Some of the attendees were still tripping three days later. Emergency wards in San Francisco were choked with freaking bohemians.
Phencylidine, or PCP, an animal tranquilizer sold by Parke-Davis, made its first appearance in San Francisco's bohemian underground, one of many mind-blistering drugs that spilled from the CIA's medicine cabinet into the streets of San Francisco. 
The marketing possibilities were not lost on La Cosa Nostra, of course. The Mob revived its Prohibition role, opened mass production labs and a meticulously organized a network of traffickers to move black market hallucinogens. 
Lee and Shlain ask, "And what was the CIA up to?":
According to a former CIA contract employee, Agency personnel helped underground chemists set up LSD laboratories in the Bay Area during the Summer of Love to "Monitor" events in the acid ghetto. But why, if this assertion is true, would the CIA be interested in keeping tabs on the hippie population? Law enforcement is not a plausible explanation, for there were already enough narcs operating in the Haight. Then what was the motive? A CIA agent who claims to have infiltrated the covert LSD network provided a clue when he referred to Haight-Ashbury as a "human guinea pig farm."
A dozen years earlier in the same city, George Hunter White and his CIA colleagues had set up a safe house and begun testing hallucinogenic drugs on unwitting citizens. White's activities were phased out in the mid-1960s when the grassroots acid scene exploded in the Bay Area. Suddenly there was a neighborhood packed full of young people who were ready and willing to gobble experimental chemicals -- chemicals that had already been tested in the lab but seldom under actual field conditions. 
Charles Manson and Timothy Leary arrived in San Francisco at roughly the same time. Both had a keen interest in mind control. In the labyrinth of Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi observes: "Somewhere along the line -- I wasn't sure how or where or when -- Manson developed a control over his followers so all-encompassing that he would ask them to violate the ultimate taboo -- say 'kill' and they would do it."
In 1993, a book appeared in Germany offering up a partial solution to the Manson mind control mystery, an intimate glimpse of the CIA's activities in the Haight district: Murder's Test-Tube: The Box of Charles Manson, by Carol Greene. A French review found the book's other characters "far more frightening than Manson himself." There was Dr. Wayne O. Evans, director of the Military Stress Laboratory of the US Army Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts in the 1960s. Evans took part in the Study Group for the Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Normal Humans, a conference held in Puerto Rico in 1967, and issued a report, Psychotropic Drugs in the Year 2000.
In considering the present volume, it is our hope that the reader will not believe this to be an exercise in science fiction. It is well known that the world of 15 years hence presently exists in the research laboratory of today.
When we consider the effects of these advances in pharmacology we must ask:
A. TO WHOM DO THE YOUTH LISTEN?
B. WHAT ARE THEIR SOCIAL AND PERSONAL WORTH?
Evans glimpsed shimmering vistas of mass mind control on the horizon. The average citizen might consider military psychopharmacology a morbid subject. "If we accept the position that human mood, motivation, and emotion are reflections of a neurochemical state of the brain, then drugs can provide a simple, rapid expedient means to produce any desired neurochemical state that we wish. The sooner that we cease to confuse scientific and moral statements about drug use, the sooner we can rationally consider the types of neurochemical states that we wish to provide for people." The unstated provider of said "neurochemical states" would, of course, be agents of the federal government.
Consider Charles Manson's contacts in Haight-Ashbury:
Dr. David E. Smith [currently an associate clinical professor of occupational medicine and toxicology at the University of California, San Francisco, and a visiting associate professor of behavioral pharmacology in the department of psychiatry, University of Nevada Medical School] and his colleague Roger Smith (no relation), both of whom were associated with the famous Haight-Ashbury Clinic in San Francisco. They shared an interest in the concept of "behavioral sinks"; believed that rats, in response to overcrowding, were naturally inclined to violence, criminality, and mass murder; and believed that the percentage of rats who would engage in such behavior could be increased by the influence of drugs. Dr. David Smith added a new imension by injecting the rats with amphetamines. Author Greene presents and defends the thesis that for both Smiths, Haight-Ashbury represented an opportunity to test these theories [on humans]. David Smith referred to Haight-Ashbury as the national center for habitual drug abuse, and the first slum for teenagers in America. Both Smiths were personally acquainted with Manson, and Roger Smith was Manson's parole officer when Manson first came to Haight-Ashbury, direct from prison. 
"No doubt about it," Lee and Shlain conclude, "LSD was a devastating weapon." 
And that's exactly how officials of the CIA saw it. Allen Dulles wrote in a memo to the Secretary of Defense in 1955 that Langley took an interest in hallucinogens in the first place due to "the enthusiasm and foresight"of Dr L. Wilson Greene, technical director of the chemical and radiological labs at the Army Chemical Center. Greene was the author of a 1949 paper, Psychochemical Warfare: A New Concept of War, a bit of Orwellian inspiration for CIA and Army officials who have cited the report as their inspiration in the study of drugs as military ordnance.
Dulles reported in his memo that the Agency was testing hallucinogens on "groups of people" or "individuals engaged in group activities." 
The list of groups susceptible to drugging did not exclude the Nixon administration. UCLA's Sidney Gottlieb testified in September, 1977 that once, when Nixon visited a foreign country, his traveling party was secretly drugged by the CIA.  ABC News later reported that the incident took place during Nixon's sojourn to the Soviet Union in May, 1972. 
At the dawn of the counter culture, CIA personnel mingled with drug dealers in San Francisco's swelling hippie district. Scientists with Agency credentials moved to the Haight and set up "monitoring" stations, among them Louis J. West of UCLA, formerly Jack Ruby's psychiatrist. (Dr. West testified that Ruby had an epileptic fit and accidentally shot Lee Harvey Oswald as a result of his involuntary twitchings). West also went on to the chair of UCLA's Neuropsychiatric Institute and oversaw the illicit mind control experiments of Drs. Jose Delgado, author of Physical Control of the Mind (1969), and Ross Adey, a veteran of Operation Paperclip. Dr. Margaret Singer, currently an advisory board member of the CIA-anchored "False Memory Syndrome Foundation," also participated in the study of LSD as a politically-destabilizing weapon.
Pete Townshend, guitar thrasher for The Who, was one of the few popular musicians who shunned the drug, found it politically and spiritually useless. He let that particular bandwagon roll by. "When you trip, you love yourself. You don't realize you were better off as you were," he said. "The trips are just a side street, and before you know it you're back where you were. Each trip is more disturbing than the one that follows until eventually the side street becomes a dead end. Not only spiritually, which is the most important, but it can actually stop you thinking." Townsend tried a hit of LSD given to him by Berkeley chemist Owsley Stanley III at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, 1967. It would be 18 years before he gave the drug another try. "It was incredibly powerful," Townshend recalled. "Owsley must have had the most extraordinary liver"  By the time he got to Woodstock, Townshend was completely put off by the CIA's mind control drug. As a "cynical" English culturatum, he "walked through it all and felt like spitting at the lot of them and shaking them, trying to make them realize nothing had changed and nothing was going to change." The alternative society that blossomed In the mid-1960s was already rapidly disintegrating. Townshend blamed Woodstock, "a field full of six-foot-deep mud laced with LSD. If that was the world they wanted to live in, then fuck the lot of them." 
Rock historian Charles Kaiser also considers LSD a weapon, and not a tool of spiritual revelation as the guinea pigs were led to believe. "One CIA memo called the drug a 'potential new agent for unconventional warfare."' Potential? "That was certainly what many people hoped it would be for the swarms of hippies who descended on the Haight in the summer of 1967. Vastly more powerful than marijuana or hash, LSD was the drug that took you, instead of the other way around. In 1966 Leary had founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, explaining, 'Like every great religion of the past, we seek to find the divinity within and to express this revelation in a life of glorification and worship of God' ... But to the disappointment of the left, there never was any direct correlation between drug use (or promiscuity) and politics. This was one aspect of the deeper dichotomy between recreations of the sixties and their political content. Worshiping under the banner of sex, drug, and rock 'n' roll, millions of young Americans smoked marijuana, tripped on acid, sped through the decade on superfluous amphetamines, dressed wildly, danced violently, and seduced one another assiduously. Then in roughly the same proportion as their parents, they continued to vote Republican." 
"Dropping out," ditching the corporate warfare state, was postulated by the emerging leadership of the anti-war subculture. And the philosophical direction of the swelling drop-out class was influenced by metaphysical, counter-cultural spokesmen with CIA support, each talking a blue streak about self, transcendence, consciousness expansion and equally high-minded, apolitical flights of mental expatriation.
On the East Coast, Ira Einhorn, an eclectic new-age quack, and his friend Andrija Puharich, inventor of the tooth implant and a CIA-Army mind control researcher, lectured the counter-culture on drug reveling and "alien" visitations. Among the business sponsors of Ira Einhorn (currently a fugitive living in France, wanted for the alleged murder of his girlfriend Holly Maddox), the Bronfman family of Seagram's fame; Russell Byers, a HUD director; John Haas, president of Rohm and Haas chemical conglomerate; Bill Cashel, Jr., a former Marine and president of Bell Pennsylvania. Einhorn wrote a chapter for a book edited by Humphrey Osmond, the infamous LSD chemist, Tim Leary and Alan Watts. His attorney was Arlen "Magic Bullet" Spector. 
Whole Earth Catalog editor Stewart Brand was the prototypical drop-out ... or was he? Brand was born in 1938, a native of Rockford, Illinois. He attended elite Phillips Exeter Academy, graduated with a degree in biology from Stanford University in 1960. Between 1960 and 1962, Brand was assigned to active duty as a US Army officer. He qualified for Airborne, taught basic infantry and worked as a Pentagon photojournalist. In 1968 he founded the original Whole Earth Catalog, a compendium of tools for alternative living.
"Brand organized one of the key events of the LSD era," writes Benjamin Woolley in Virtual Worlds (1992) -- the 1966 'Trips Festival' in San Francisco. It was to be the grand finale of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests, a blissful "state of collective psychic intimacy that caused individual minds to melt into one single, seamless consciousness." Stewart Brand saw in the Acid Test a glitzy public gathering to rival a rock concert for spectacle. "Hard though it may now be to believe, [he] set about attracting business sponsors. Brand's commercial pragmatism and boy scout enthusiasm resulted in a sort of huge village fete, one that attracted an estimated 10,000 people and perhaps, though this goes unrecorded, a profit. It was so successful that a New York promoter reportedly wanted to book the acid test for Madison Square Garden."
In September 1967, precisely as CHAOS was launched by the CIA and the White House, Dr. Timothy Leary, tossed out of the Army for erratic behavior, abandoned experimenting with LSD on prisoners for the CIA in upstate New York, dropped a reading of the Tibetan Book of the Dead and donned the robes of designated LSD media prelate.
"In addition to this long mainstream tradition of far-out Sufi gnostic experimentation," Leary told religious historian Rick Fields in 1983, "there was another branch of drug research."  While still at Harvard, Leary was approached by Henry Murray, chief of psychological operations for William Donovan's Office of Strategic Services during WWII (and after the war a mind control researcher at Harvard who enlisted as a subject of experimentation one Ted Kaczynski, the Unabomber [19)]. At the 1950 spy trial of Alger Hiss, Murray openly testified: "The whole nature of the functions of OSS were particularly inviting to psychopathic characters; it involved sensation, intrigue, the idea of being a mysterious man with secret knowledge."  And so Leary was fascinated with psychedelic compounds, "like most intelligence men," he added, and volunteered early on for the psilocybin trials, surreptitiously sponsored by the Company.
Kesey and Allen Ginsburg, among many others, first tasted LSD by signing onto Agency-funded research programs.
"Hundreds of Harvard students had been tripped out by answering ads in the Crimson," Leary explained to Smith. "So when I got here, I must tell you, I was the square on the block. We shared these drugs as novices, as amateurs, hesitantly moving into a field that had no signposts or guidelines. There was simply no language in western psychology to describe altered states of consciousness or ecstasies or visions or terrors. The psychiatrists said these were 'psychomimetic' experiences."
Dr. Leary's CIA resume has roots in 1954, with his promotion to director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland, California. At Kaiser, Dr. Leary developed a personality test, "The Leary" -- administered to Leary himself in 1970, in prison  -- adopted by the Agency to test applicants.
Dr. Leary was the bosom ally of Frank Barron, a former grad school classmate and CIA acid head.  Barron was employed by the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research -- Leary later admitted that the Institute was "staffed by OSS-CIA psychologists." In 1966, Barron founded the Harvard Psychedelic Drug Research Center. Mark Riebling, a Leary biographer, writes "Leary follows Barron to Harvard and becomes a lecturer in psychology. After Barron administers to him some CIA psilocybin and LSD, Leary begins tripping regularly. He also studies the effects of psychedelics on others in controlled experiments. He later admits to knowing, at the time, that 'some powerful people in Washington have sponsored all this drug research.' In addition to Barron, Leary's associates and assistants during this period include former OSS chief psychologist Murray, who had monitored military experiments on truth-drug brainwashing and interrogation, and Dr Martin Orne, a researcher receiving funds from CIA."  (Orne, with the late Dr. West and Dr. Singer, was a guiding light of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, an organization that specializes in discrediting ritually-abused, mind-controlled children and their therapists.)
Leary swapped hallucinatory epiphanies with Aldous Huxley, a visiting professor at Harvard University. Huxley convinced Leary to form a "secret society," writes Riebling, "to launch and lead a psychedelic conspiracy to brainwash influential people for the purposes of human betterment. 'That's how everything of culture and beauty and philosophic freedom has been passed on.'" Huxley suggested that he initiated "artists, writers, poets, jazz musicians, elegant courtesans. And they'll educate the intelligent rich."
In 1962, Mary Pinchot Meyer (gunned down on a Potomac towpath, October 12, 1964), divorced from Cord Meyer, her CIA official husband visited Leary at Harvard. "Leary will later recall her as 'amused, arrogant, aristocratic."' Meyer informs Leary that the government is "studying ways to use drugs for warfare, for espionage, for brainwashing." She asks that he "teach us how to run [LSD] sessions, use drugs to do good. Leary agrees. He provides her with drug samples and 'session' reports, and is in touch with her every few weeks, advising her on how to be a 'brainwasher.' She swears him to secrecy." One day after the assassination of John Kennedy, she phoned him, Leary recalled, and she was overcome with fear and grief. "They couldn't control [Kennedy] anymore," she told Leary. "He was learning too much ... They'll cover everything up." 
Leary was a magnet for espionage agents. He was constantly surrounded by operatives of the intelligence agencies. In the end, he paired up with G. Gordon Liddy in a traveling radio road show. Liddy was a CHAOS veteran. 
On September 12, 1970, Tim Leary escaped from prison, aided, according to Benjamin Woolly, "by the Weather Underground ... apparently funded by [CIA runamuck] Ronald Stark and the Brotherhood of Eternal Love." Leary's famed flight to Switzerland was facilitated by CIA contractees. "May 1971," writes Riebling, "Leary and his wife escape to Switzerland with the assistance, according to Leary, of an 'Algerian bureaucrat named Ali,' who 'made no bones about his connection to the CIA ... and [Leary says] 'that's the best mafia you can deal with in the twentieth century."'
The prison escape was financed by the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, and the LSD distributed by the Brotherhood was provided by convicted CIA terrorist Ron Stark. Profits from the sale of the LSD were deposited in Castle Bank, a CIA hot money cooler legally represented by Paul Helliwell, a business promoter for Meyer Lansky and the CIA's chief launderer of heroin proceeds. 
1. Jim Fouratt, "Denver Festival: Mace with Music," Rolling Stone, no 38, July 26, 1969, pp 6-8.
2. Jim Hougan, Spooks: The Haunting of America: The Private Use of Secret Agents, New York, William Morrow, 1978, pp 20, 74-75.
3. Dick Russell, The Man Who Knew Too Much, New York Carroll & Graf/Richard Gallen, 1992, pp. 191, 321.
4. Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets: Richard Helms and the CIA, New York Pocket Books, 1979, pp. 319-20.
5. E. Howard Hunt, Undercover Memoirs of an American Secret Agent, Berkeley, 1974, pp. 211-12.
6. Martin A. Lee & Bruce Shlain, Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond, New York, Grove Weidenfield, 1992, p. 187.
7. Ibid, p. 188 "Hard core Cosa Nostra-type criminal figures [run] an extremely well-organized traffic in hallucinogenic drugs" -- James Finlator, FDA official.
8. Ibid., pp 188-89.20.
9. David E. Smith, M.D. biography, Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic publicity release. Manson was released from prison in March, 1967. Dr. David Smith, according to Vincent Bugliosi in Helter Skelter, "got to know the [Manson] group through his work in the Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic" (p. 222). Before opening the clinic, Smith had lived in the Haight-Ashbury district for 32 years. He was a student at the University of California at San Francisco medical school, specializing in psychopharmacology, the study of the effects of drugs on the mind. Smith is a past president of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), in Chevy Chase, Maryland. He was succeeded as president of ASAM in 1995 by Dr. G. Douglas Talbott, M.D., who served three years in the Korean War as an Air Force captain. He was Chief of Medicine at the 275th Hospital, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, a medical aide to both the Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force. Upon his discharge in 1956, he returned to his hometown of Dayton, Ohio, where he entered private practice. He worked closely with NASA in its nascent Nazi-overrun days, and was a civilian consultant in charge of crew selection for Project Mercury, among other responsibilities The military-industrial connections of Smith and Talbott are among many indications that ASAM is an intelligence front.
10. Lee and Shlain, p. 190.
11. Alan W. Scheflin and Edward M. Opton, Jr., The Mind Manipulators, New York, Paddington Press, 1978, p, 159.
12. lbid, p. 158.
13. Ibid., p. 499.
14. Geoffrey Giuliano, Behind Blue Eyes: The Life of Pete Townshend, New York, Plume Books, 1996, p. 77.
15. Giuliano, p. 91.
16. Charles Kaiser, 1968 in America: Music, Politics, Chaos, Counterculture, and the Shaping of a Generation, New York, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1988, pp. 205-06.
17. See Steven Levy, The Unicorn's Secret Murder in the Age of Aquarius, New York: Prentice Hall, 1988.
18. Rick Fields, "Flashback & Fast Forward Psychedelics in the '80s," New Age, July 1983, p. 41.
19. Alexander Cockburn, "We're Reaping Tragic Legacy from Drugs," Los Angeles Times, July 6, 1999, p. B-5. Murray was chairman of Harvard's Department of Social Relations, and, Cockburn notes, "zealously prosecuted the CIA's efforts to carry forward experiments in mind control conducted by Nazi doctors in the concentration camps. Just as Harvard students were fed doses of LSD, psilocybin and other potions, so too were prisoners and many unwitting guinea pigs."
20. R. Harris Smith, OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency, Berkeley University of California Press, 1972, p. 7.
21. Lee and Shlain, p. 260.
22. Frank Barron, born in 1922, a psychologist and presumably a philosopher, earned his Ph.D. at Berkeley in 1950. Early in his career, Barron's publications in the field of creativity attracted the interest of the Agency. He was employed for over thirty years at the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, an organization funded and staffed by former OSS-CIA psychologists. On two occasions, Barron rejected offers to become director of psychological personnel for the CIA. Frank Barron biography, Council of Spiritual Practice home page, www.csp.org.
23. Mark Riebling, "Tinker, Tailor, Stoner, Spy," Osprey Productions/Grand Royal web page, 1994.
24. Russell, p. 461.
25. A Nazi link to G. Gordon Liddy foreshadowing his escapades in the Nixon White House. In 1961, Interpol -- a world police force reorganized and Nazified by Heinrich Himmler and J. Edgar Hoover in 1937, with Nazi General Kurt Daluege holding the reins -- was charged by the World Jewish Congress with providing "an unexpected sense of safety" to Nazis in hiding. Vaughn Young, in "The Men from Interpol," describes the events preceding the appearance of G. Gordon Liddy in the Nixon White House. "By 1968, the Nazi issue had quieted sufficiently to allow the election of Paul Dickopf as president. Besides working in Heydrich's SD, where Interpol was located during the war, Dickopf had assisted in rebuilding the police infrastructure in postwar Germany, achieving a senior position for himself in the Bundeskriminalamt. During his four-year reign, the organization achieved a momentary state of financial affluence ..." At the White House, in 1969, events were transpiring that would reach across the ocean five years later. The image of fair and efficient law enforcement, carefully nurtured since Heydrich, was about to fall away. Eugene Rossides, as Interpol's boss in the Treasury Department, moved up the international ladder to follow in Hoover's footsteps. Elected to serve with Dickopf as a vice-president, Rossides was also busy in the U.S. Treasury giving a job to a young man by the name of G. Gordon Liddy."
Leary's tie to a disgraced agent of the FBI is consistent enough -- after his extradition from Switzerland, according to his file, the LSD advocate agreed to inform on the counter-culture for the bureau.
26. See Penny Lernoux, In Banks We Trust, New York: Penguin, 1984. Helliwell, the smack-infested CIA attorney, also snatched up 27,000 acres of prime real estate in Florida on behalf of Walt Disney, the site of Disney World.
The Death of Cass Elliot and Other "Restless Youth"
The late Mae Brussell, a mercurial encyclopedia of political research in Carmel, California, reached some startling conclusions in an unpublished manuscript entitled "Operation CHAOS".
By August, 1967, Special Operations Group went after the youth. By July, 1968, Operation CHAOS, identical to Chilean "Chaos," went after the "restless youth." This wasn't a study. It was an attack.
Mid-summer of 1969, one month before the Manson Family massacres, Operation CHAOS went into the most tight security [mode]. They had perfected enough LSD to cause every violent act or symptom associated with the violence in Los Angeles or at Altamont. It was identical to giving poison candy at Halloween. LSD was the moving force, the cause for the Sharon Tate-La Bianca slaughters. It was fed at the Spahn Ranch for a steady diet.
July, 1968, explicit orders went out to proceed, accompanied with instructions to neutralize segments of our society, including those restless youth. By 1969, the 555, Special Services Staff of the FBI, combined with the Justice Department, and with CIA's Operation CHAOS
August, 1969 was the Sharon Tate-La Bianca slaughter. 
What Manson called home was a relic of Hollywood's past. The Spahn Ranch was the backdrop for movies made by Tom Mix, William S. Hart and John Mack Brown. Parts of Howard Hughes's The Outlaw were shot there. But the ranch had one more claim to historical significance. Next to George Spahn's property stretched the Krupp Ranch, owned by one of the wealthiest families in Nazi Germany, a ranking sponsor of Hitler's aggression and its accompanying atrocities. The chief US prosecutor at the International Court determined that "both Krupps, Gustav von Bohlen as well as Alfried, are directly responsible. They led German industry, violating international agreements and international law. They employed forced labor, dragged and forced into Germany from almost all countries occupied by Germany ... These workers in Krupp's care and in Krupp's service were undernourished and overworked, misused and inhumanely treated." Thousands in the Krupp-owned concentration camps were worked to death. 
The Krupp Ranch has since been transformed into a blooming commercial Bavarian beer garden. Howard Hughes purchased some 500 acres of Krupp-owned land in Nevada after his move to Las Vegas. 
Much has been made of Manson's interactions with the Process Church of the Final Judgment in Los Angeles, a religious organization that worshipped a buffet of Jehovah, Lucifer and Satan. "Release the fiend that lies dormant within you" was one Process teaching. "Learn to love fear" was another.
A Process newsletter from London, written by "Soror H" shortly after the Tate-LaBianca murders, celebrated Manson and claimed him as a fellow Process Satanist.
Manson went astray where others in the PROCESS have succeeded. He was sucked into the whirlpool of Fame and Fortune and when he didn't cut it, he decided to cut it up. He testifies to those areas many of us deny exist. Perhaps the fascination is that he carried out his ideas in action, and showed many of us what it's like to actually commit the crime we'd like to commit.
Manson was clever in his choice of beliefs: the whole Beatles Helter Skelter thing was, of course, a model to instill the PROCESS into his followers, who were more likely to respond to such "turned-on" symbols than the more traditionalones. The whole thing was a scam; a guru trick, but Manson's intention was to open up the occult centres of perception by a unique, pop-based outlook influenced primarily by the PROCESS. 
Manson, the aspiring rock artist, and his family of tripping satyrs socialized with established recording artists in Los Angeles. He lived for a year with Beach Boy Dennis Wilson, who would drown in twelve feet of water in 1983. Bobby Beausoleil, convicted for the torture-murder of Gary Hinman, was a devotee of Manson's. The rock group Love, founded by Beausoleil's musical companion Arthur Lee (of the signature multicolored glasses), was not a band of laughing survivors. Since the Manson episode, a curse has dogged their heels. Guitarist Bryan Maclean and bass-player Ken Forssi are dead Tjay Cantrelli, born John Barberis, a sax player and flutist, is also presumed dead, at least this is the most probable conjecture. Johnny Echols has disappeared and is also thought to be deceased. Michael Stuart, drummer, changed his name to conceal his identity and his whereabouts are unknown. Arthur Lee, convicted in 1995 to 12 years at the Pleasant Valley State Prison in Coalinga, California, for firing a handgun into the air, is fiercely reluctant to discuss the group's past, and so are survivors of Love's many incarnations. But the prison sentence is unreasonably harsh -- considering that a fan visiting Lee at his home on Mulholland Drive confessed to firing the pistol himself, and that the fan suffered such remorse over the conviction that he developed a bipolar disorder and was hospitalized. William Cenego, the fan, insists that the forensic test for gun-powder residue on Lee's hand was negative. "I think Arthur had an incredibly unfair trial," Cenego laments. "It's almost not accurate to describe it as a trial."
The death of Dennis Wilson was questioned by Mae Brussell in her weekly "Worldwatcher's International" broadcast on KAZU-FM, Monterey, California, on January 16, 1984:
There's [an] article in the San Francisco Chronicle ... that said: 'Dennis Wilson was responsible for one of the group's darkest secrets. 'Me and Charlie, we started the Family."' He said he'd founded the Manson Family. He made a record with Charles Manson. On the 20/20 album, Dennis Wilson is credited as author ...
Bill Oster was the fellow who allegedly owned the yacht where he drowned. [Oster:] "He appeared to be clowning [Wilson] when he dove into 12 feet of water. He did not surface after the dive. He poked his hand above and waved. I saw the body slip. I thought he was clowning. I knew he had to come up for air."
The Los Angeles Herald said that "His wife called at the boat at 4:30." That would be the exact time he was going under. A woman answered and she was "kind of rude."' She said: "We've got some trouble here" and slammed down the phone. That would be the exact time that he was bubbling and waving and nobody jumped in for him. And at 5:30, one hour later, according to another account, he was picked up.
Two days before the drowning, Wilson had signed into St. John's Hospital to "be clean of alcohol and drugs." A man and a woman visited him. Wilson became agitated and signed out of the unit. He was taken immediately to the boat.
Medical examiners found a gash on the drummer's forehead:
The coroner said [the gash] "didn't contribute" to his death. He died as a result of "drowning." He has a hit on the head and drowns in 12 feet of water.
Wilson's friends check him out and supplied him with alcohol, and he has a hit on the head and drowns in 12 feet of water. He was buried at sea. This assures that there will be no autopsy after that bang on the head. He's fed to the sharks ... that's the old Grenada trip they're using. And there's no way now to ever know what caused that bang on his head, or how deep it was ...
In Sharon Tate's home there were video movies of military VIPs. I know there were, but who was on those tapes? They belonged to the LAPD. Would Dennis Wilson know who was on those tapes? He was close to that scene.
Ed Sanders notes that Manson met Abigail Folger, the wealthy coffee heiress found dead among the carnage on Cielo Drive, at the home of Mama Cass Elliot. 
"Gibby," Maury Terry learned, "had more money than she knew what to do with. She was into finding herself and new directions, and she was always investing in things." She doled out cash to Manson on occasion. Then stopped. "Manson turned against her when she refused to layout any more bucks for him."
When Manson lived in San Francisco, Folger loaned $10,000 to the Straight Theater at Haight and Cole Streets. Manson then lived on Cole Street, on the same block as the Process Church. On September 21, 1967, the Magick Powerhouse of Oz performed at the Straight in celebration of the "Equinox of the Gods." Bobby Beausoleil was the lead guitarist at this august function.
Folger also funded Timothy Leary, filmmaker Kenneth Anger, and the Process Church of the Final Judgment in the establishment of the "Himalayan Academy," not far from the Esalen Institute. The Leary Lab was chock-a-block with pricey brain-scanning gear, oscilloscopes, and advanced bioelectronic hardware. Manson was a hanger-on at the Himalayan Foundation. In fact, he first encountered the Process there, joined the openly Satanic sect, according to Terry, "and later convened with the group in Mill Valley and at a dwelling in San Anselmo occupied by a well-known personage aligned with the LSD scene. Both cities are in the Bay area." 
Folger, a financier of a covert CIA lab, knew another regular of Mama Cass's entourage, Bill Mentzer, currently serving a life term for the murder of fledgling Hollywood producer Roy Radin, a partner in The Cotton Club. He never lived to see the movie -- Robert Evans, a partner with the deceased in the film and a friend of Henry Kissinger, did.
The nucleus of this pathological parade, Cass Eliot, nee Ellen Naomi Cohen, born in 1941 and raised in Washington, D.C, was a German baronness by marriage. Her second husband, Baron Donald von Weidenman, a German nobleman, is currently an artist living in New York.
Cass was one of a famed quartet, The Mamas and The Papas, sometimes described as America's first hippies. The quartet formed in New York City in 1963 around songwriter John Phillips. Holly Michelle Gillian Phillips, born in Long Beach, California on June 4, 1945, gave up a modeling career to sing with Phillips and married him in 1962. The Journeymen, as they were then known, also included Scott McKenzie, who would join the surviving Mamas and Papas in 1985.
Cass moved with the group from the East Coast to Los Angeles in 1964, and they were signed by Lou Alder's Dunhill label. The Mamas and Papas split up in 1968. Michelle Phillips set out on a successful acting career, appearing in Dillinger and Valentino. She was a regular on Knots Landing. Michelle married actor Dennis Hopper for eight days in 1970. John Phillips and Dennis Doherty, the Papas, also went solo with mixed success. Cass Elliot, however, launched a highly successful career. She produced seven albums and several singles before her death in 1974.
Cass' beau at the time of her fatal heart attack was Pic Dawson, then under investigation by Scotland Yard for international drug smuggling, and the son of a State Department official under Henry Kissinger.
Cass had recently finished two weeks at the London Palladium The coroner's report was not conclusive. She "probably choked to death," but there was also "a possibility of heart attack."
In his career biography of Cass Elliot, Jon Johnson published twelve photocopies from her FBI file, released after an FOIA request. The pages are almost entirely obscured by black ink (?). Hoover's Bureau surveilled Cass at the request of Alexander P. Butterfield, a retired Air Force commando and Nixon's chief security advisor.
"She reportedly has associated with drug addicts," the FBI report mentions, "and individuals opposed to the President's Vietnam policy."
One report marked "urgent" and "confidential" states that Cass Elliot attended a fund-raiser in Hollywood attended by Jack Nicholson and Ryan O'Neal, among other celebrities. The event was hosted by the Entertainment Industry for Peace and Justice Committee (EIPJ). The FBI file gossips that "between dates with Henry Kissinger, Marlo Thomas also attended the EIPJ meet with Barry Diller." Tuesday Weld, Burt Lancaster and Jane Fonda, among others, also attended the fund-raiser.
Cass had political ambitions. "I think that I would like to be a senator or something in twenty years," she told Mike Douglas. She attended a variety of Democratic Party functions, participated in a Madison Square Garden rally sponsored by Rose Kennedy. "I saw in the Democratic Convention in Chicago that there were more people interested in what I was interested in than I believed possible. It made me want to work ... there would be room in an organized movement of politics for me to voice myself." (Johnson).
Paul Krassner, editor of The Realist, a fixture of the "underground" press, suspects Cass was the target of political foul play. "Cass Elliot was a friend," he says. "I believe she may have been killed. She knew an awful lot about the incredible criminal links between Hollywood and Washington and Las Vegas ... She was also a friend of Sharon Tate's. On the night Bobby Kennedy was killed, [Cass] had dinner with Sharon and Roman Polanski at the home of film director John Frankenheimer in Malibu Beach."'
Pathologists in London refused to specify the cause of death at a public hearing. They did, however, mutter fatuously that she may have "choked" to death. The most-ludicrous-explanation award went to Dr. Keith Simpson, whose autopsy detected a "left-sided heart failure. She plainly had a heart attack." He claimed, to cries of outrage from the medical community, that a section of Elliot's heart muscle had actually "turned to fat." The coronary lapse was attributed to "stress." Johnson:
The conclusion was termed "improper" by a Vanderbilt University heart specialist immediately after it was made public ."It is true that obesity is related to high blood pressure and stroke, but there's no correlation with a heart attack," disputed Dr. George V. Mann. "He's stating an old-fashioned dogma, a Victorian concept of fatty degeneration that has gone out in modern times. Old time pathologists tend to look at deposits of adipose tissue around the surface of the heart and associate it with a heart attack, but a heart attack is due to limitation of blood supply to the heart muscle with the result that some of the muscle dies."
Whatever the underlying cause, the verdict remained unchanged. She died of a massive heart attack. 
Blood tests detected no drugs or alcohol in her system -- but then this is the same report that arrived at ersatz "Victorian" conclusions. She took to her grave knowledge of drug trafficking by Pic Dawson, a State Department official's son, and any information that Manson and Mentzer may have shared with her -- exactly as Abigail Folger was silenced on Cielo Drive, taking with her any knowledge she may have had of the Himalayan Institute and related federally-sponsored "human guinea-pig farms."
1. Mae Brussell "Operation CHAOS: The CIA's War Against the Sixties Counter-Culture," unpublished ms.
2. State Archives Administration of the German Democratic Republic, Brown Book: War and Nazi criminals in West Germany, East Germany: Verlag Zeit im Bild, 1965, pp 41-2.
4. Soror H., undated Process newsletter, London, vol. 2, no 1, 1970.
5. Sara Scribner, "Love Hurts," New Times (Los Angeles weekly), March 11, 1999, pp 15-21.
6. Maury Terry, The Ultimate Evil: An Investigation into America's Most Dangerous Satanic Cult, New York: Dolphin, 1987, pp. 494-95.
7. Ibid, pp 495-96.
8. Paul Krassner in Craig Karpel, "The Power of Positive Paranoia," Oui, May 1975, p 111.
9. Jon Johnson, Make Your Own Kind of Music: A Career Retrospective of Cass Elliot, Hollywood Music Archives Press, 1987, pp 71-72.
"Merry Old England" is a stubborn non sequitur. The UK is one of the gloomiest places on earth. In the late 1960s the shadow of Big Brother fell on British youth and civil rights activists as ominously as it did in the States. The National Union of Students and the National Council for Civil Liberties, based in London, collected a dossier on police agents who'd approached students to spy on their fellow academics. One of these cases concerned John Bell, former chairman of the Durham University Conservative Association. Bell reported that he'd been visited by a detective who attempted to recruit him to inform on student leftists. Bell rejected the offer and told the leader of a campus Socialist organization about the incident.  Another student, Bill Clinton, was also courted by the CIA, while attending Oxford University, and enlisted -- by Operation CHAOS, the most sweeping covert program in the history of the Agency -- for the same purpose. 
Counterintelligence operations in the UK kept pace with those in the States. Robert Lashbrook, a representative of the Human Ecology Fund -- the notorious CIA front at Cornell that quietly disbursed grants for mind control experimentation, with or without the consent of the human subjects -- was then assigned to the London station. Agents under Lashbrook's supervision slipped LSD to English rock groups before performing without their prior knowledge to "study the drug's effects on their musical abilities."
Before long, some of the most popular rock acts in Britain were scoring the mind control drug directly from Lashbrook's CIA colleagues. 
David Schneidermann, the Rolling Stones' LSD supplier for one night, certainly exhibited that air of cloak-and-dagger. Schneidermann, Mick Jagger recalls, was a "sinister" Yank hailing from California, but "he had so many passports no one was certain of his origin." Schneidermannn brought to Keith Richards' hotel room "a suitcase [that] contained every herb and chemical to stab or stroke the mind ... along with choice LSD from San Francisco. Schneidermann had let believe he was bending the law all over the world. He was on a James Bond thing, the CIA or something." 
Singer Marianne Faithfull recalls Schneidermann as "a fantastic" drug peddler. "He was a Californian who dressed in proper suit-and-tie and carried a leather attache case in which he had almost every kind of drug you could think of, including several types of LSD." 
Schneidermann nearly destroyed the Stones with one stroke. On February 11, 1967, the band whiled away the evening recording a four-track rough cut tentatively titled "Blues One." Afterwards, Keith Richards drove to the Mayfair Hotel in a chauffeur-driven Bentley. The remaining Stones and their entourage followed Jagger in a Mini-Cooper "S" to West Sussex, a convoy that included photographer Michael Cooper, Marianne Fathfull, King's Road jet-setter Nick Cramer, and "Acid King" David Schneidermannn. They were met at Keith's hotel room by George and Pattie Harrison. 
Bob Dylan and the Who blared on the stereo. "While the party was in full swing," bassist Bill Wyman wrote in his autobiography, "an informant, who had earlier telephoned the News of the World, arrived at the newspaper's offices. In that first phone call at about 10 PM, he told a reporter that he had some information about a party some of the Rolling Stones were holding. The informant rejected the paper's suggestion that he should go to the police, saying, 'I want to remain anonymous, but I think the police should know what's going on."' The informant, Wyman realized, was an insider. "Who else would know that only 'some' of the Stones would be there?"
The newspaper's editor, finding the "insider" credible, phoned police and was referred to the West Sussex narcotics squad. 
Marianne Faithfull told historian A.E. Hotchner that the next morning, "Schneidermannn came to our rooms and distributed Sunshine [LSD] to all of us ... By afternoon we all began to emerge from our rooms, floating on LSD trips." 
Wyman wrote that Schneidermann woke the guests "with cups of tea and offered some of them 'white lightning,' a hallucinogenic drug that had the effect of LSD but was slightly less powerful."  As Richards recalls it, "we had all taken acid and were in a completely freaked-out state when the police arrived." The television was on with the sound off and the stereo blasting. Keith answered the door, and said, 'Oh, look, there's lots of little ladies and gentlemen outside."'
Another drug peddler arrived, a mystery man Richards had never met. "He'd come with some other people and was sitting there with a big bag of hash," said Richards. "They even let him go, out of the country." He wasn't what they were looking for. 
This was a peculiar enough squad of drug police. For one thing, they weren't in the least concerned with drugs. In fact, the Stones were wanted for their political sympathies and all that anti-establishment wriggling, prancing, sneering and taunting. One of them, guitarist Brian Jones, had gone so far as to publicly criticize establishment war policies. "Nothing destroys culture, art or the simple privilege of having time to think quicker than a war."
"The whole raid was a set-up," Marianne Faithfull insists to the present day. Keith Richards and others who witnessed the bust likewise came to the conclusion that Schneidermann had arranged it. "We also believed information was supplied by the fink, Schneidermannn, who, despite having an attache case chock-a-block with drugs, was not searched. When a cop asked to see the contents of his case, Schneidermann said it was full of exposed film and couldn't be opened, and the cop let it go at that. Also, Schneidermann mysteriously disappeared that very evening, never to be seen again."
The police got satisfaction from the raid-- until it dawned on them that none of the suspects present at Richard's flat actually had drugs on them. Schneidermann was released and boarded a plane for California, taking the evidence with him. "When it came down to it, they couldn't pin anything on us at all," said Richards "All they could pin on me was allowing people to smoke on my premises. It wasn't my shit. All they could pin on Mick was these four amphetamine tablets [benzedrine, legally prescribed and obtained] that he'd bought in Italy across the counter. It really backfired on them because they didn't get enough on us." 
But the arrests of Jagger and Richards did land them before the bench. They were both found guilty and sentenced to prison. A third defendant, art gallery owner Robert Frazier, was also convicted. (It was Frazier, an occultist on the Aleister Crowley path, who introduced Jagger to film-maker Kenneth Anger, an early recruit of Anton La Vey's Church of Satan. Anger received generous grants from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations to fund his movies. He relocated to England after living for a spell in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, where he co-habitated with convicted murderer Bobby Beausoleil. ) When the verdicts were read, Jagger turned pale. He nearly fainted, wept openly in the courtroom. Protests of the sentencings broke out on Fleet Street and at the News of the World editorial offices.
Under questioning by Mr. Morris, the Crown's prosecutor, Keith Richards openly discussed the conspiracy. He assumed under questioning that the News of the World had arranged the bust, but Schneidermannn was no journalist, and the coordination of phone taps and a full-blown intelligence operation is beyond most newspapers. The busting of Jagger and Richards was an act of political harassment, a coordinated attempt to discredit the Stones. They were spied upon, Richards testified that one night when he stayed with Brian Jones, he noted "a brown furniture van with white side-panels. There was no name on the van. The same night I saw it outside Mick's house. In the same week, I was followed by a green florist's van, which had the same white panels." [144 (After his move to the United States, John Lennon also complained that he was constantly tailed by parties unknown who drove him to a state of "paranoia." )
Faithfull recalls hearing "peculiar noises" on Jagger's telephone. She and Jagger also noticed "a blue and white van permanently parked near our house, so we figured we were both being watched and listened in on."
Keith Richards was mystified and annoyed the night he fell asleep and woke up to find that someone had slipped through a newly-installed and very costly security system. 
The fusion of music and politics made the Stones enemies of the state. Mick Jagger had watched the anti-war protests at the London Embassy and followed the youth rallies in Paris. While awaiting trial, he told the Daily Mirror, "I see a great deal of danger in the air." The fans "are not screaming over pop music anymore, they're screaming for much deeper reasons. We are only serving as a means of giving them an outlet. Teenagers the world over are weary of being pushed around by half-witted politicians who attempt to dominate their way of thinking and set a code for their living. This is a protest against the system. And I see a lot of trouble coming in the dawn."  Jagger openly sassed the wigs: "War stems from power-mad politicians and patriots. Some new master plan would end all these mindless men from seats of power and replace them with real people, people of compassion."  The "half-wits" and "mindless men," of course, were not numb to Jagger's venom and replacement was not on their desk calendars.
Ultimately, the convictions of Jagger and Richards were overturned on appeal. The judge declared in each case that "no proper evidence" had been presented by the prosecution to prove possession or even indulgence in drugs.
But Marianne Faithfull looks back at "all that persecution, the fact that every time any of us were in a car we were stopped and searched." One evening, "one of many, many busts, the cops very obviously planted something during their search. Mick set the guy up -- the detective, whoever he was -- to pay him off, and filmed the payoff with a hidden camera." All charges were immediately dropped. 
The police had Jagger and Richards, and, Bill Wyman observes, "wanted to bust another one and dispatch the Stones for good." On May 10, the very same evening of the arrests in West Sussex, the doorbell chimed at the Brian Jones home. About a dozen bobbies entered and conducted a 45-minute search of the premises. The detectives turned up one planted vial of "pathetic grass," according to Wyman, a bit of low-grade marijuana to justify an arrest. They also found a small quantity of marijuana resin, and Jones, who confessed to smoking pot in the past, was charged. Like Jagger and Richards, he was convicted the first time around. But within a month of the arrest, his emotional state wavered under the pressure. The possibility of going to prison terrified him and continual police harassment aggravated his fears. Prince Stanislaus Klossowski de Rola, a close friend with Jones on the day of the arrest, explained why the guitarist's behavior was erratic toward the end. "An artist can be hounded into a state in which his mental health will deteriorate and that's what happened to Brian." 
But Brian's legal problems were not the entire cause of his decline and fall. A hostile clique, a very odd construction crew hired to restore Brian's home, originally A.A. Milne's cottage, muscled their way into his private life at Cotchford Farm. Brian's friend Nicholas Fitzgerald ran into the rhythm guitarist and founder of the Stones at a pub before he was found at the bottom of his swimming pool. Jones was in a snit over "a bunch hanging out at the farm." For a lark, they'd =hidden his motorcycle. When on the phone, the line would sometimes suddenly go dead. "Then when I get the engineers in, they say there's nothing wrong. They're always leaping up to answer the phone and then they tell me it was a wrong number. I just can't trust anybody. I know you think I'm paranoid. Maybe I am, but not about this. I know they're up to something." 
Bassist Bill Wyman found the crew "a horrible group of people," and it was largely due to their intimidations that Jones decayed "physically, mentally and musically." 
Richards recalled the bullying by Jones' house "guests" after the murder: "Some very weird things happened the night Brian died. We had these [people] working for us, and we tried to find out. Some of them had a weird hold over Brian. I got straight into it and wanted to know who was there and couldn't find out. The only cat I could ask was the one I think who got rid of everybody, and did a whole disappearing thing so that when the cops arrived, it was just an accident. Maybe it was I don't know. I don't even know who was there that night, and finding out is impossible. It's the same feeling with who killed Kennedy. You can't get to the bottom of it." 
Not, that is, until the killer confessed on his death bed. In April, 1994, the UK's Independent reported:
MURDER CLAIMS RAISE DOUBT OVER ROLLING STONE'S DEATH. Police are to consider reopening the investigation into the death of former Rolling Stone Brian Jones 25 years ago, after claims in two new books that he was murdered.
The books to be published this month, conclude that the 27-year-old guitarist was deliberately drowned in the swimming pool of his country mansion by one of his aides. Both name a builder, Frank Thorogood, who died last year, as the man responsible for the killing at the star's home in Cotchford Farm, Sussex, on 2 July 1969.
An inquest recorded a verdict of death by misadventure, assuming that Jones -- who was notorious for his rock-star excesses -- had drowned because of the drink and drugs he had been consuming in the weeks after he was sacked from the Rolling Stones ...
Paint It Black by Geoffrey Guiliano and Terry Rawling's Who Killed Christopher Robin, claim to have unearthed fresh evidence about Jones' final hours which proves he was deliberately killed. Mr. Guiliano's book quotes an unnamed associate of Mr. Thorogood's, described as "a husky Cockney," who admits helping him hold Jones's head under the water. 
Witnesses have elaborated on Thorogood's death-bed confession, and the story that has emerged completely contradicts press accounts. Nick Fitzgerald now acknowledges that he arrived at the Jones estate shortly after the drowning, walked past the summer house behind the mansion and "saw the full glare of the lights over the pool and in the windows of the house. We had a clear view of the pool." Fitzgerald approached to find three men dressed in sweaters and blue jeans, probably workmen, but the spotlights "blotted out their features and made their faces look like white blobs. At the very moment I became aware of them, the middle one dropped to his knees, reached into the water and pushed down on the top of a head that looked white." Two others, a man and a woman, watched passively. "The kneeling man was pushing down on the head," Fitzgerald told Hotchner, "keeping it under. The man to the right of the kneeling man said something. It sounded like a command." One of the men leaped into the pool and "landed on the back of the struggling swimmer." A third man was "commanded" into the pool to hold Jones down.
From the bushes near Fitzgerald, a "burly man wearing glasses" rushed him. The man pushed Richard Cadbury, a companion, out of he way and grabbed Fitzgerald by the shoulder. He stuck a fist in Fitzgerald's face. "Get the hell out of here, Fitzgerald," the man spat, "or you'll be next."
"He meant it," Fitzgerald reported decades after the fact. He had never seen the Cockney before, yet somehow the brute knew his name. Shaking, he stumbled to his car and Richard floored it away from the murder scene. They were too terrified to go to the police. "Brian was dead I couldn't rectify that and I might be putting my own life in danger. So I let it pass, but that scene hasn't passed from my mind and even to this day it troubles me very much." 
Who authorized the clean-up after the murder? Fitzgerald attempted to contact Cadbury the day after Jones died. He was told that Cadbury had picked up and moved, leaving no forwarding address. A pair of other witnesses, Anna Wohlin and Linda Lawrence, received instructions to leave the country immediately."
Wohlin was visiting Cotchford Farms at the time of death and was instructed to alter her testimony. She writes in The Murder of Brian Jones (1999) that Frank warned her "Just think about what you say to the police. The only thing you need to tell them is that Brian had been drinking and that his drowning was an accident. You don't have to tell them anything else. 'I left Brian to go to the kitchen and light a cigarette and I don't know any more than you.' But there's no need for you to tell the police that you saw me in the kitchen. Just tell them we pulled Brian out of the pool together." Wohlin recalls, "Frank was worried, and I knew he had every reason to be. But I was scared, too. I didn't want to end up like Brian, so I did what Frank had told me to do. I didn't dare challenge fate. Frank lied during the interview. Janet's recollections seemed confused. And I concealed the truth. I know I let Brian down. I'm still ashamed of withholding information, but I was scared of reprisals."
The coroner ruled that Jones was felled by "misadventure." In Merry Old England legalese, this means "accidental death not due to crime or negligence," a spurious judgment at best. The word "murder" did not appear in the report, and he laid blame on the victim with emphasis on liver deterioration brought on by chronic narcotics and alcohol abuse.
The death of Brian Jones has since been universally laughed off, attributed to drug use, when in fact he was completely off drugs, with the exception of ale and wine, for several weeks prior to his drowning. It is evident that he was drugged the evening of his murder, suggesting premeditation, planning. Eyewitnesses reported that he drank a couple of brandies before taking a swim. But Jones biographer Laura Jackson was shocked to discover in the biochemist's analysis "far and away the most disturbing truth relating to Brian's death." Jones was "subjected to thin-layer chromotography, a technique designed minutely to separate and analyse the body's components, and which failed to reveal the presence of any amphetamine, methedrine, morphine, methadone, or isoprenaline. What it did reveal, however, is far more alarming: two dense spots, one yellow-orange in color and one purple which were not able to be identified. Brian's urine revealed an amphetamine-like -- not amphetamine, and the distinction is important -- substance 1720 mgs percent, nearly nine times the normal level."
The tell-tale signs of a cover-up by authorities are unmistakable. The bottle of brandy that Jones drank from was confiscated by PC Albert Evans "for analysis," and was never seen again. No lab report on the wine appeared in court papers.  Any probes into the drowning of Brian Jones were relegated to the Sussex Criminal Investigations Division (CID). The CID had the option of referring the case to the Director of Public Prosecutions -- instead, the division chose to monopolize the investigation, in the end claiming there was "no evidence" to warrant prosecution, although at least one senior investigator protested this decision. East Sussex coroner David Wadman suggested falsely that the Home Office and police had thoroughly investigated the drowning. "I am bound to say that I think it is extremely unlikely that you'll obtain any further information," he insisted. But a Home Office spokesman subsequently rejected the claim that an investigation had been conducted at all, admitting flatly, "We do not have any information touching Mr. Jones' death." 
A.E Hotchner found that the death is still, some thirty years later, a sensitive subject in some quarters. While living in London, Electra May, his editorial assistant, scheduled an interview with Justin de Villeneuve, the mentor of Twiggy, the doe-eyed celebrity model of the 1960s. Two days before the de Villeneuve (his real name was Nigel Davies) interview, Hotchner took a train to Eastbourne to meet with the coroner, Mr. E.N Grace, "who kindly provided me with all the police and medical reports relative to Brian's death, and a transcript of the inquest. A few days later, Electra phoned de Villeneuve to confirm the interview for that day. 'There is no interview,' de Villeneuve's assistant said." Electra asked why he had chosen to cancel. "Because Hotchner has been to see the coroner, hasn't he? We didn't know he was opening that can of worms. That's why." Hotchner's secretary was unnerved by this response, he notes, since "she thought she was the only person who knew about my meeting with Coroner Grace." 
Who sent the lorries to the estate to cart off Brian's possessions, the same sort of looting that followed the death of Jimi Hendrix, Bob Marley, and other star-crossed musicians? After the funeral at St. Mary's Church, the workmen who killed Jones repaired directly to his mansion, girlfriends in tow. An estate worker said, "They drank, laughed and joked crudely and cavorted about. They even took their women to Brian's bed. It really turned me over. I was out in the grounds and they hadn't even bothered to close the curtains. You just couldn't help but see them in there, in Brian's bed. It was utterly appalling." Jones' belongings, with the exception of a couple of his most valued musical instruments, were systematically loaded into vans lined up in front of the house. Shortly thereafter, a bonfire was set in the garden. "A group of men were burning an enormous amount of stuff. I know, because I had a very nice little Bible and they'd flung that on, too," said a gardener. "They were burning Brian's things -- his clothes, shirts and what have you. I don't know on whose sayso, but they cleared no end of stuff out of his house and burned the lot." 
Jones was buried at Cheltenham Cemetery two days after the murder. In 1980, Rolling Stone staked an epitaph to the life of Lewis Brian Hopkin-Jones. "Jones played rhythm guitar for the group since its inception in 1962, but his contribution was more spiritual than musical. His flamboyant appearance and notorious lifestyle -- which included fathering two illegitimate children by the time he was sixteen -- set the tone for the band's image." Rock critic Greil Marcus likewise found the essence of the band in him. "What the Stones as a group sang about ... Jones did." 
But the account of his death left by police and the media industry is a fiction, because he was off drugs completely at the time. His death was not an accident caused by a life of abuse. He was murdered.
1. "Random Notes," Rolling Stone, no. 38, July 26, 1969, p 4.
2. Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "Student Bill Clinton 'Spied' on Americans abroad for CIA," London Telegraph, June 3, 1996. Also see, Roger Morris in Partners in Power ( 1996). Among the first to publicly note the relationship of Clinton with the CIA was Gene Wheaton, formerly an NSC contractee and a Christic Institute investigator, in radio interviews following the first Clinton inaugural. On June 10, 1996, the Telegraph reported, "in the late 1960s, Mr. Clinton worked as a source for the Central Intelligence Agency ... He was certainly no dangerous radical. 'No attack by his reactionary opponents would be more undeserved than the charge that young Bill Clinton was 'radical,' concludes [Roger] Morris. The bearded, disheveled Rhodes scholar was recruited by the CIA while at Oxford -- along with several other young Americans with political aspirations -- to keep tabs on fellow students involved in protest activities against the Vietnam War. Morris says that the young Clinton indulged in some low-level spying in Norway in 1969, visiting the Oslo Peace Institute and submitting a CIA informant's report on American peace activists who had taken refuge in Scandinavia to avoid the draft. 'An officer in the CIA station in Stockholm confirmed that,' said Morris. The Washington Establishment would like to dismiss this troubling book as the work of a fevered conspiracy theorist. But Morris is no lightweight. He worked at the White House in both the Johnson and Nixon administrations, resigning from the National Security Council in 1970 in protest over the US invasion of Cambodia. He went on to become an acclaimed biographer of Richard Nixon.
3. A.E Hotchner, Blown Away: A No-Holds-Barred Portrait of the Rolling Stones and the Sixties Told by the Voices of the Generation, New York Fireside, 1990, pp 2 18-19.
4. Mae Brussell, "Operation CHAOS," unpublished ms.
5. A.E. Hotchner, p 232.
6. Bill Wyman with Bill Coleman, Stone Alone, New York Viking, 1990, pp 404-5.
8. Hotchner, pp. 232-33.
11. Hotchner, p 233.
12. Hotchner, p 234.
13. See Bill Landis, Anger: The Unauthorized Biography of Kenneth Anger, New York Harper Collins, 1995.
14. Wyman, pp 437-38.
15. Pete Hamill, " Long Night's Journey Into Day: A Conversation with John Lennon," Rolling Stone, no 188, June 5, 1975, p 73. Lennon: "I went on the Dick Cavett show and said they were followin' me ... [And] when they were followin' me, they wanted me to see when they were followin' me."
16. Landis, p 167.
17. Davin Seay, Mick Jagger: The Story Behind the Rolling Stone, New York: Birch Lane, 1993, p 98.
18. Hotchner, pp 231-32.
21. Hotchner, p. 296. Psychological pressure of this sort put Jones in a hyper-vigilant state, tactics common in mind control operations. The Manson Family attempted to bully and cajole Los Angeles studio musician Terry Melcher and Dennis Wilson of the Beach Boys into forking over "travel expenses." The shakedown of guitarist Gary Hinman ended in his murder by torture. Brian Jones was also murdered after an argument over money with Thorogood. Jones had been stalked by the workmen for months. The psychological intimidations led, according to Jones' friend Robert Hattrell, to "odd mental behavior, paranoiac, afraid there were people after him, out to get him.
22. Wyman, p 428.
24. "Murder Claims Raise Doubt over Rolling Stone's Death," Independent, April 4, 1994, p 2.
25. Hotchner pp. 297-99.
26. Laura Jackson, Golden Stone: The Untold Life and Tragic Death of Brian Jones, New York: St. Martin's, 1992, p. 217.
27. R Gary Patterson, Hellhounds on Their Trail: Tales from the Rock 'n' Roll Graveyard, Nashville, Tennessee, Dowling Press, 1998, pp 202-3.
28. Jackson, pp 225-26.
29. Hotchner, p 299.
30. Jackson, pp 224-25.
31. Burk Uzzle, "Rock & Roll Heaven," Rolling Stone, June 12, 1980, p 45.
Portraits in Carnage: The End of the Rock Festivals
Five months after the drowning death of Brian Jones, a music festival held near San Francisco turned murderous, smothering Aquarius and its political anthems with a handful of apocalyptic screen images, "restless youth" seemingly devouring itself. The Rolling Stones were the centerpiece of the hellish fiasco at Altamont on December 6, 1969. The band would forevermore be tainted by the surreal violence of Gimme Shelter, the documentary film that chronicled the disaster, and so would the counterculture the Stones had done much to inspire.
The festival was conceived in the first place to redeem the group's flagging image. The press had laid into Jagger and crew, emphasizing their greed, "The stories of the Stones' avarice spread," journalist Robert Sam Anson reported, and critics pointed to Mick's $250,000 townhouse, the collection of glittering Rolls Royces, "and [they] wondered how revolutionary 'a man of wealth and taste' could be. A token free appearance would still those critics. The concert, problems and all, was going to happen, For the Stones' sake, it had to."
The group's management set out to select a site for the event. They consulted Jan Wenner, the editor of Rolling Stone, who sent them to several professional concert promoters, and they in turn put them in touch with famed San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli, fixture of California's well-heeled "conservative" power base.
This was the first Big Mistake. Belli was summed up at his funeral in July, 1996 by Bishop William Swing, in a eulogy stitched with irony in the context of Operation CHAOS, at Grace Cathedral. Over the infamous attorney's pale cadaver, the Bishop bid farewell to Belli.
A man of law against the chaos of life, A man of chaos against the laws of life. 
A cartoon that appeared after Belli's death in the San Diego Union Tribune was an eloquent expression of his ethical standards. It depicted St Peter on the telephone, reporting, "I've got a guy here claiming he was struck and injured by one of the Pearly Gates," and there, smiling like an angel, stood a well-groomed soul identified by the nametag on his briefcase "M. Belli."  The San Francisco Chronicle bid him farewell with a letter to the editor that appeared on the Op- Ed page. "Melvin Belli helped establish the principles of the plaintiff attorney: avarice, immunity to logic, self- aggrandizement and perfect contempt for the interests of society." 
He was not only an ambulance chaser par excellence. The legendary Melvin Belli was one of the CIA's most trusted courtroom wonders until hypertension and cardiovascular disease claimed him on July 9, 1996. His client roster included Jack Ruby, Sirhan Sirhan, Martha Mitchell and Jim Bakker. His first high-profile client was Errol Flynn, who, according to thousands of FBI and military intelligence documents released under FOIA to biographer Charles Higham, was an avid admirer of Adolf Hitler, recruited by Dr. Hermann Friedrich Erben, an Abwher intelligence agent, to spy on the United States. The FBI, Higham discovered in the midst of poring through the many boxes of FOIA documents dropped on his doorstep, pestered Flynn and the studio employing him over his wartime association with a Nazi, "but there was little doubt that Will Hays and Colonel William Guthrie, a high-ranking Army officer on the studio payroll as Jack Warner's troubleshoot in all matters connected with politics, were responsible for the cover-up. Hays and Guthrie managed to smother the numerous inquiries that began seriously to threaten Errol's career."  Melvin Belli, Flynn's attorney, could also be counted on to button his lip, and he did repeatedly as a CIA-Mafia legal counsel in a number of assassination cover-ups. 
It was Melvin Belli who chose the speedway at Altamont for the festival. "As a staging ground for a rock concert," Anson concluded, "especially one expected to draw 300,000 people or more. Altamont could hardly have been worse. The raceway, which was on the brink of bankruptcy, was small, cramped, and difficult to reach. Its acres were littered with the rusting hulks of junked automobiles and thousands of shards of broken glass. In appearance, it had all the charm =of a graveyard. Worst of all, though, the deal for its use had not been sealed until the final moment. Whereas Woodstock had taken months to prepare, Altamont had to be ready within twenty-four hours." 
The second Big Mistake of Altamont was the hiring of Ralph "Sonny" Barger and a contingent of Hell's Angels to keep the peace.
Barger, it has since been divulged, was an informant and hit man on the payroll of the Department of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF). When Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver fled the country for Algeria, the ATF negotiated with Barger to "bring Cleaver home in a box." He often made deals with law enforcement in exchange for dismissal of charges against fellow Angels. Barger was even hired by federal agents to kill immigrant farm labor activist Cesar Chavez, and may well have if Barger hadn't first been arrested by police in the Bay area on a prior homicide charge. 
The accusation arose in the death of Servio Winston Agero, a drug dealer. In a surprise courtroom maneuver, Sonny took the witness stand and confessed to his arrangement with local police and federal agents. Over a period of several years, he testified, he had brokered deals with Oakland authorities to give up the location of hidden caches of automatic weapons, mortars and dynamite in exchange for the dismissal of all charges against members of his motorcycle gang. This was a deal he had brokered with Edward Hilliard, then a sergeant at the Oakland Police Department's vice squad. Hilliard refused to comment when questioned by reporters. The defendant admitted for the record that he sold narcotics for a living, forged IDs, and slept with a pistol under his pillow. On seven occasions, though, Barger refused to respond to questioning and was fined $3,500 by Judge William J. Hayes for each demurral.
Deputy prosecutor Donald Whyte asked the "spiritual" leader of the Hell's Angels, an admitted federal operative, to name officers who asked him to "kill someone." Barger squirmed and claimed that he could not recall, exactly, but attempted several phonetic variations of a possible name.  Even in the courtroom, it seems, he was not about to risk retaliation by government contacts.
But the deal was exposed anyway by ATF whistle-blower Larry Shears. The agent told his story to narcotics agents, and they gathered evidence on the murder plan before talking to the press. Shears announced that Barger had been contracted to kill Chavez, an assassination ordered by agribusiness magnates in the San Joaquin Valley. Chavez was only alive, Shears reported, because there had been delays. The first came when ATF agents insisted that certain files first be stolen from the farm union. The arson of union offices was attempted by hired hands, another delay. Confirmation of these allegations came three weeks later when union officials complained to reporters that there had been recent "arson attempts against [farm] union offices. Others have been riddled with bullet holes, and on at least two occasions attempts were made to steal records in the union offices."
The next glitch in the Chavez assassination, Shears said, came when the hit man, Sonny Barger, was arrested for the Agero murder. To support his statements, Shears waved a federal voucher at reporters signed by Senator Edward Kennedy, a payment of $10,000 to Shears for services rendered as an informant to narcotics agents and the IRS. 
In March 1989, according to wire releases, Sonny Barger was convicted with four other Angels for conspiracy to violate federal firearms and explosives laws in a variety of plots to kill members of rival motorcycle clubs. Barger and Michael Vincent O'Farrell were sentenced in US District Court, Louisville, Kentucky, for their part in the transport of explosives with intent to kill. Barger and three others were slapped with additional counts for "dealing with a stolen government manual." Barger was freed on parole three years later The mystery of his early release was dispelled by the Tucson Weekly in 1996 -- it seems Barger had a political guardian. "You can talk about the biker tradition," a law enforcement source explained, the Harley, the patch that they've killed for, but in the end, what's most important is money. Hell's Angels is represented in 18 countries now. They're probably the largest organized crime family that we export from the US. At the center of this global expansion is Oakland-based International President "Sonny" Barger, who's had his hand on the throttle of Hells Angels' money and mayhem machine since the late '50s, despite occasional prison stints. When Barger was released from prison in 1992, an estimated 3,000 people attended his party ... Some influential people might get bought. I can't tell you that Colorado Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell received any money... I do know that he used his influence to try to get Sonny Barger out of prison." 
Barger's booze-swaggling, two-wheeling entourage were paid killers. And since the carnage at Altamont, the Hell's Angels have twice attempted to kill the Rolling Stones. In March, 1983, a witness calling himself "Butch," his true identity protected by the federal witness program, testified before a Senate Judiciary Committee about plots to kill the Stones. "There's always been a contract on the band," he admitted under questioning. There were "two attempts to kill them that I know about. They will some day. They swear they will do it." The vendetta, Butch said, originated with the killing at the Speedway concert, and was motivated by the failure of the Stones to back the Angel prosecuted for the killing. The first attempt to assassinate the entire band took place in the mid-'70s. "They sent a member with a gun and a silencer" to a hotel where the Stones were staying. The hit-man "staked out the hotel, but [the Stones] never showed up," said the government informant. And in 1979, the Angels' New York chapter "were going to put a bomb in the house and blow everybody up and kill everybody at the party." But this conspiracy sank with a cache of plastic explosives, accidentally dropped overboard from a rubber raft. Killing the Stones, he testified, was an "obsession" with the bike gang. 
Who in 1969 suspected that the Hell's Angel was in reality a death squad leader in the pay of "conservative" political operatives? The swastika tattoos and gothic jewelry? Window dressing. The roughing up of peace demonstrators? The shootouts? The terrorizing of small towns? The rapings? The drugs? A refreshing break from the status quo.
A supplier from Berkeley donated 1,000 hits of LSD laced with speed to Barger's Altamont security force, and the Angels toted along several cases of red wine and a generous supply of barbiturates. The concert commenced at 1 PM with a set by Santana, and before long the beatings began. By the time Santana ripped to a close, the first casualties limped into the first aid station. There were broken arms, open wounds, shattered jaws and ribs, and bad LSD trips that left joy-seekers screaming in terror. There were so many of these that the Thorazine cache ran dry within a few hours, leaving the overdosed untreated. 
The Jefferson Airplane played songs about social unity and revolution and a flung beer bottle fractured a woman's skull. She reeled, fell, stood and collapsed again.
Jagger arrived in a helicopter. Anson writes "Kids got up, yelled, and started running, bursting past the Angels to get close to him. Jagger emerged, smiling, waving, calling greetings, with Timothy Leary at his side flashing the peace symbol." 
Jagger hurried to the safety of his trailer. The Angels resumed beating concert-goers. A photographer was told to stop shooting the violence and give up the film. He refused and an Angel smashed him in the face with his camera.
Crosby, Stills and Nash preceded the Stones, but the escalating violence forced them to cut their set short. The Stones would not play until the sun went down and delayed their appearance some 90 minutes, aggravating the macabre tension of the event. The Angels, riding on electric currents of methamphetamine and lysergic acid, bludgeoned the audience with lead-filled pool cues. At long last, Jagger strutted across the stage, sporting a red, white and blue stovepipe hat, silver pants, black boots, an Omega symbol emblazoned on his chest.
The Rolling Stones packaged the occult education they had received from Satanist Kenneth Anger. "The top hat," explains Anger biographer Bill Landis, "was snatched from the legend of [Bobby] Beausoleil: the Mansonite killer of LA guitarist Gary Hinman. "The Crowleyan personal power tripping" was amplified by "pop iconography and massive amounts of cocaine to fuel Jagger's attempt at incarnating Lucifer." 
The Stones managed to lumber through "Jumpin' Jack Flash" and "Carol," but "Sympathy for the Devil" was accompanied by howls from the crowd directly in front of the stage. Jagger urged the audience repeatedly to "cool down, cool down, now ..." Another outbreak accompanied "Under My Thumb." The source of the commotion was the stabbing death of Meredith Hunter, 18, who pulled a gun and reportedly took aim at Jagger.
"As Mick peered out," Ben Fong-Torres recalls, "there were kids staring at him in incredulous silence, mouthing the word, 'Why?"'
After the concert, reports Anson, "there was a mysterious shake-up in the Angel hierarchy, and the suicide of one Angel who had been particularly close to the rock scene." Alan David Passaro, 24, one of Barger's soldiers and an ex-convict, was charged with Hunter's murder. But Barger himself was unapologetic." I'm no peace creep by ny sense of the word. Ain't nobody gonna kick my motorcycle."  Passaro, already serving a prison sentence on an unrelated offense when served, was eventually acquitted on grounds of self-defense.
A platoon of cinematographers was assembled by directors Albert and David Maysles to shoot Gimme Shelter, the Altamont documentary. They were directed to concentrate on the violence, not the performances on stage. A recent TV Guide review of the the video complains that the crew "focused resolutely on the mayhem and discord." 
"Sympathy for the Devil" was the last-gasp anthem of the festival scene in America. A repeat of the disaster was visited upon Louisiana a few months later, when an excess of 50,000 young people turned out for a "Celebration of Life" on the Atchafalaya River. The Galloping Gooses motorcycle club, hired to attend to security, chain-whipped the celebrants, leaving three dead and many wounded. 
A cancer was growing on the counter-culture.
1. Herb Caen, "Above and Beyond," San Francisco Chronicle, July 24, 1996, p. B-I.
3. Letter to the editor, San Francisco Chronicle, July 19, 1996, p A-16.
4. Charles Higham, Errol Flynn: The Untold Story, New York: Doubleday, 1980, pp 91-92. Background on Higham and the government documents released to him come from author's interviews of Higham.
5. San Francisco columnist Herb Caen reminisced about Belli's bosom friendship with the screen idol, both of whom had a keen interest in teenage girls. "When he and his close friend and client, Errol Flynn, were out on the town, no young lady was safe. Two Rogue Scholars on the loose, both exceedingly handsome and dangerous to know too well. Every time I saw Mel on the make I thought of Dorothy Parker's line about the girl who lost her virginity sliding down a barrister. One night at Cal-Neva, the Tahoe gambling joint with the California-Nevada state line running through the lobby, I saw Mel crossing that line with a very young girl. Referring to the then-statute against crossing a state line with a minor for immoral purposes, I asked him 'Does she know about the Mann Act?' 'Know about it?' he whooped 'She loves it!'" Herb Caen, "Friday's Fractured Flicker," San Francisco Chronicle, July 12, 1996, p C.I For background on Melvin Belli's interaction with the Central Intelligence Agency and the Mafia, see Constantine, A, Psychic Dictatorship in the USA, 1995, p. 191; Diamond, S., Spiritual Warfare, 1989, p. 30; Hinckle, W., If You Have a Lemon, Make Lemonade, 1990, p. 200; Johnson, R.W., Shootdown, 1987, pp. 377-8, 394-5; Kalltor, S., The Ruby Cover-up, 1992, pp. 224-35, 415-6; Marrs, J., Crossfire, 1990, pp. 414, 424; Piper, M.C., Final Judgment, 1993, pp. 161, 172-5, Ragano, F. Raab, S., Mob Lawyer, 1994, pp. 241-8, 360, Scheim, D., Contract on America, 1988, p. 154, Scott, P.D., Deep Politics, 1993, p. 233.
6. Robert Sam Anson, Gone Crazy and Back Again, New York: Doubleday, 1981, p. 141.
7. Account of Larry Shears, ATF agent, alleging that Barger was recruited by ATF agents -- at a time when G. Gordon Liddy worked for the ATF, a division of the Treasury Department -- to assassinate Eldridge Cleaver. December 17, 1971 news broadcast, Channel 23, Los Angeles, CA.
8. Drew McKillips, "Amazing Story by Hells' Angels Chief," San Francisco Chronicle, December 12, 1972, p. 1.
9. "ATF Agent Says He Was Part of Coast Plot to Kill Cesar Chavez," New York Times, January 2, 1972, p. 31).
10. Karen Brandel, "Angels in Arizona," Tucson Weekly, Aug 15, 1996, p 1.
11. Hotchner, p. 320.
12 Anson, p. 148.
13. Anson, p. 149.
14. Bill Landis, Anger: The Unauthorized Biography of Kenneth Anger, New York: Harper Collins, 1995, p. 177. It is ironic that with Scorpio Rising (1964), Anger the satanist had launched the popular mythos surrounding the Hell's Angels. Anger's cultural oddity, Landis writes, "made them seem more lyrical after all the media reports on gang rapes, chain whipping and stomping they were doing." (pp 118-19).
15. Anson, pp. 156-57.
16. "Gimme Shelter, 1970," TV Guide Movie Database, Internet posting.
17. David P. Szatmary, Rockin' in Time: A Social History of Rock and Roll, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1987, p. 149.
THE COVERT WAR AGAINST ROCK -- THE MURDER OF JIMI HENDRIX
I DON'T BELIEVE FOR ONE MINUTE THAT HE KILLED HIMSELF. THAT WAS OUT OF THE QUESTION. CHAS CHANDLER, HENDRIX PRODUCER
I BELIEVE THE CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING HIS DEATH ARE SUSPICIOUS AND I THINK HE WAS MURDERED. ED CHALPIN, PROPRIETOR OF STUDIO 76
I FEEL HE WAS MURDERED, FRANKLY. SOMEBODY GAVE HIM SOMETHING. SOMEBODY GAVE HIM SOMETHING THEY SHOULDN'T HAVE. JOHN MCLAUGHLIN, GUITARIST, MAHAVISHNU ORCHESTRA
HE DIDN'T DIE FROM A DRUG OVERDOSE. HE WAS NOT AN OUT-OF-CONTROL DOPE FIEND. JIMI HENDRIX WAS NOT A JUNKIE. AND ANYONE WHO WOULD USE HIS DEATH AS A WARNING TO STAY AWAY FROM DRUGS SHOULD WARN PEOPLE AGAINST THE OTHER THINGS THAT KILLED JIMI -- THE STRESSES OF DEALING WITH THE MUSIC INDUSTRY, THE CRAZINESS OF BEING ON THE ROAD, AND ESPECIALLY, THE DANGERS OF INVOLVING ONESELF IN A RADICAL, OR EVEN UNPOPULAR, POLITICAL MOVEMENTS.
COINTELPRO WAS OUT TO DO MORE THAN PREVENT A COMMUNIST MENACE FROM OVERTAKING THE UNITED STATES, OR KEEP THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT FROM BURNING DOWN CITIES. COINTELPRO WAS OUT TO OBLITERATE ITS OPPOSITION AND RUIN THE REPUTATIONS OF THE PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE ANTIWAR MOVEMENT, THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, AND THE ROCK REVOLUTION. WHENEVER JIMI HENDRIX'S DEATH IS BLAMED ON DRUGS, IT ACCOMPLISHES THE GOALS OF THE FBI'S PROGRAM. IT NOT ONLY SLANDERS JIMI'S PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL REPUTATION, BUT THE ENTIRE ROCK REVOLUTION IN THE 1960s. JOHN HOLMSTROM, "WHO KILLED JIMI?!" 
As the music of youth and resistance fell under the cross-hairs of the CHAOS war, it is not unthinkable that Jimi Hendrix -- the tripping, peacenik "Black Elvis" of the '60s -- found himself a target.
Agents of the pathologically nationalistic FBI opened a file on Hendrix in 1969 after his appearance at several benefits for "subversive" causes. His most cutting insult to the state was participation in a concert for Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, Tom Hayden, Bobby Seale and the other defendants of the Chicago Seven conspiracy trial.  "[We have to] get the Black Panthers not to kill anybody," he told a reporter for a teen magazine, "but to scare [federal officials] .... I know it sounds like war, but that's what's gonna have to happen. It has to be a war. ... You come back to reality and there are some evil folks around and they want you to be passive and weak and peaceful so that they can just overtake you like jelly on bread. ... You have to fight fire with fire." 
On tour in Liesburg, Sweden, Hendrix was interviewed by Tommy Rander, a reporter for the Gotesborgs-Tidningen. "In the USA, you have to decide which side you're on," Hendrix explained. "You are either a rebel or like Frank Sinatra." 
In 1979, college students at the campus newspaper of Santa Barbara University (USB) filed for release of FBI files on Hendrix. Six heavily inked-out pages were released to the student reporters. (The deletions nixed information "currently and properly classified pursuant to Executive Order 11652, in the interest of national defense of foreign policy.") On appeal, seven more pages were reluctantly turned over to the USB students. The file revealed that Hendrix had been placed on the federal "Security Index," a list of "subversives" to be rounded up and placed in detainment camps in the event of a national emergency.
If the intelligence agencies had their reasons to keep tabs on Hendrix, they couldn't have picked a better man for the job than Hendrix's manager, Mike Jeffrey. Jeffrey, by his own admission an intelligence agent,  was born in South London in 1933, the sole child of postal workers. He completed his education in 1949, took a job as a clerk for Mobil Oil, was drafted to the National Service two years later. Jeffrey's scores in science took him to the Educational Corps. He signed on as a professional soldier, joined the Intelligence Corps, and at this point his career enters an obscure phase.
Hendrix biographers Shapiro and Glebeek report that Jeffrey often boasted of "undercover work against the Russians, of murder, mayhem and torture in foreign cities. ... His father says Mike rarely spoke about what he did -- itself perhaps indicative of the sensitive nature of his work -- but confirms that much of Mike's military career was spent in 'civvies,' that he was stationed in Egypt and that he could speak Russian." 
There was, however, another, equally intriguing side of Mike Jeffrey. He frequently hinted that he had powerful underworld connections. It was common knowledge that he had had an abiding professional relationship with Steve Weiss, the attorney for both the Hendrix Experience and the Mafia-managed Vanilla Fudge, hailing from the law firm of Seingarten, Wedeen & Weiss. On one occasion, when drummer Mitch Mitchell found himself in a fix with police over a boat he'd rented and wrecked, mobsters from the Fudge management office intervened and pried him loose. 
Organized crime has had fingers in the recording industry since the jukebox wars. Mafioso Michael Franzene testified in open court in the late 1980s that "Sonny" Franzene, his stepfather, was a silent investor in Buddah Records.  At this industry oddity the inane, nasal, apolitical 1960s "bubblegum" song was blown from the goo of adolescent mating fantasies. The most popular of Buddah's acts were the 1910 Fruitgum Company and Ohio Express. These bands shared a lead singer, Joey Levine. Some cultural contributions from the Buddha label: "Yummy, Yummy, Yummy," "Simon Says," and "1-2-3 Red Light."
In 1971, Buddha Records' Bobby Bloom was killed in a shooting sometimes described as "accidental," sometimes "suicide," at the age of 28. Bloom made a number of solo records, including "Love Don't Let Me Down," and "Count On Me." He formed a partnership with composer Jeff Barry and they wrote songs for the Monkees in their late period. Bloom made the Top 10 with the effervescent "Montego Bay" in 1970. Other Mafia-managed acts of the late 1960s were equally apolitical: Vanilla Fudge ("You Keep Me Hangin' On," "Bang, Bang"),  or Motown's Gladys Knight and the Pips.  In the '60s and beyond, organized crime wrenched unto itself control of industry workers via the Teamster's Union. Trucking was Mob controlled. So were stadium concessions. No rock bands toured unless money exchanged hands to see that a band's instruments weren't delivered to the wrong airport. 
Intelligence agent or representative of the mob? Whether Jeffrey was either or both -- and the evidence is clear that a CIA/Mafia combination has exercised considerable influence in the music industry for decades -- at a certain point, Hendrix must have seen something that made him desperately want out of his management contract with Jeffrey.
Monika Dannemann, Hendrix's fiance at the time of his death describes Mike Jeffrey's control tactics, his attempts to isolate and manipulate Hendrix, with observations of his evolving awareness that Jeffrey was a covert operator bent on dominating his life and mind:
Jimi felt more and more unsafe in New York, the city where he used to feel so much at home. It had begun to serve as a prison to him, and a place where he had to watch his back all the time.
In May 1969 Jimi was arrested at Toronto for possession of drugs. He later told me he believed Jeffrey had used a third person to plant the drugs on him -- as a warning, to teach him a lesson.
Jeffrey had realized not only that Jimi was looking for ways of breaking out of their contract, but also that Jimi might have calculated that the Toronto arrest would be an easy way to silence Jimi. ... Jeffrey did not like Jimi to have friends who would put ideas in his head and give him strength. He preferred Jimi to be more isolated, or to mix with certain people whom Jeffrey could use to influence and try to manipulate him.
So in New York, Jimi felt at times that he was under surveillance, and others around him noticed the same. He tried desperately to get out of his management contract, and asked several people for advice on the best way to do it. Jimi started to understand the people around him could not be trusted, as things he had told them in confidence now filtered through to Jeffrey. Obviously some people informed his manager of Jimi's plans, possibly having been bought or promised advantages by Jeffrey. Jimi had always been a trusting and open person, but now he had reason to become suspicious of people he didn't know well, becoming quite secretive and keeping very much to himself. 
Five years after the death of the virtuoso, Crawdaddy reported that friends of Hendrix felt "he was very unhappy and confused before his death. Buddy Miles recalled numerous times he complained about his managers." His chief roadie, Gerry Stickells, told Welch, "he became frustrated ... by a lot of people around him." 
Hendrix was obsessed with the troubles that Jeffrey and company brought to his life and career. The band's finances were entirely controlled by management and were depleted by a tax haven in the Bahamas founded in 1965 by Michael Jeffrey called Yameta Co., a subsidiary of the Bank of New Providence, with accounts at the Naussau branch of the Bank of Nova Scotia and the Chemical Bank in New York.  A substantial share of the band's earnings had been quietly drained by Yameta. The banks where Jeffrey opened accounts have been officially charged with the laundering of drug proceeds, a universal theme of CIA/Mafia activity. The Chemical Bank was forced to plead guilty to 445 misdemeanors in 1980 when a federal investigation found that bank officials had failed to report transactions they knew to derive from drug trafficking.  The Bank of Nova Scotia was a key investor in the Bank of Commerce and Credit International, (BCCI), once described by Time magazine as "the most pervasive money-laundering operation and financial supermarket ever created," with ties to the upper echelons of several governments, the CIA, the Pentagon, and the Vatican.  BCCI maintained warm relationships with international terrorists, and investigators turned up accounts for Libya, Syria and the PLO at BCCI's London branch, recalling Mike Jeffrey's military intelligence interest in the Middle East. And then there were bank records from Panama City relating to General Noriega. These "disappeared" en route to the District of Columbia under heavy DEA guard. An internal investigation later, DEA officials admitted they were at a loss to explain the theft. 
Friends of Hendrix, according to Electric Gypsy, confiscated financial documents from his New York office and turned them over to Jimi: "One showed that what was supposed to be a $10,000 gig was in fact grossing $50,000."
"Jimi Hendrix was upset that large amounts of his money were missing," reports rock historian R. Gary Patterson. Hendrix had discovered the financial diversions and took legal action to recover them. 
But there was another factor also involving funds.
Some of Hendrix's friends have concluded that "Jeffrey stood to make a greater sum of money from a dead Jimi Hendrix than a living one. There was also mention of a one million dollar insurance policy covering Hendrix's life made out with Jeffrey as the beneficiary." The manager of the Experience constructed "a financial empire based on the posthumous releases of Hendrix's previously unreleased recordings."  Crushing musical voices of dissent was proving to be an immensely profitable enterprise because a dead rocker leaves behind a fortune in publishing rights and royalties.
Roadies couldn't help but notice that Mike Jeffrey, the seasoned military intelligence officer, was capable of "subtle acts of sabotage against them," reports Shapiro. Jeffrey booked the Experience for a concert tour with the Monkees and Hendrix was forced to cancel when the agony of playing to hordes of 12-year-old children, and fear of a parental backlash, convinced him to bailout.
As for the arrest in Toronto, Hendrix confidantes also blame Jeffrey for the planted heroin. The charges were dropped after Hendrix argued that the unopened container of dope had been dropped into his travel bag upon departure by a girl who claimed that it was cold medicine. 
In July, 1970, one month before his death, at precisely the time Hendrix stopped all communications with Jeffrey, he told Chuck Wein, a film director at Andy Warhol's Factory: "The next time I go to Seattle will be in a pine box." 
And he knew who would drop him in it. Producer Alan Douglas recalls that Hendrix "had a hang-up about the word 'manager."' The guitarist had pled with Douglas, the proprietor of his own jazz label, to handle the band's business affairs. One of the most popular musicians in the world was desperate. He appealed to a dozen business contacts to handle his bookings and finances, to no avail. 
Meanwhile, the sabotage continued in every possible form. Douglas: "Regardless of whatever else Jimi wanted to do, Mike would keep pulling him back or pushing him back. ... And the way the gigs were routed! I mean, one nighters -- he would do Ontario one night, Miami the next night, California the next night. He used to waste [Hendrix] on a tour -- and never make too much money because the expenses were ridiculous." 
The obits were a jumbled lot of skewed, contradictory eulogies: DRUGS KILL JIMI HENDRIX AT 24, ROCK STAR IS DEAD IN LONDON AT 27, OVERDOSE. Many of the obituaries dwelt on the "wild man of rock" image, but there were also many personal commentaries from reporters who followed his career closely, and they dismissed as hype reports of chronic drug abuse. Mike Ledgerwood, a writer for Disc and Music Echo, offered a portrait that the closest friends of Jimi Hendrix confirm: "Despite his fame and fortune -- plus the inevitable hang-ups and hustles which beset his incredible career -- he remained a quiet and almost timid individual. He was naturally helpful and honest." Sounds magazine "found a man of quite remarkable charm, an almost old-world courtesy."
Hendrix biographer Tony Brown has, since the mid-'70s, collected all the testimony he could find relating to Hendrix's death, and finds it "tragic" but "predictable." The official cause of death was asphyxiation caused by inhaling his own vomit, but in the days and weeks leading up to the tragedy anyone with an ounce of common sense could see that Hendrix was heading for a terrible fall. Unfortunately, no one close to him managed to steer him clear of the maelstrom that was closing in. Brown sent a report based on his own investigation to the Attorney General's office in February, 1992, "in the hope that they would reopen the inquest into Jimi's death. The evidence was so strong that they ordered Scotland Yard detectives to conduct their own investigation." Months later, detectives at the Yard responded to Sir Nicholas Lyle at the Attorney General's office, rejecting the proposal to revive the inquest. 
The pathologist's report left the cause of death "open." Monika Dannemann had long insisted that Hendrix was murdered. At the time of her own death, she had brought media attention to the case in a bitter and highly-publicized court battle with former Hendrix girlfriend Kathy Etchingham. On April 5, 1996, her body was discovered in a fume-filled car near her home in Seaford, Sussex, south England. Police dismissed the death as a "suicide" and the corporate press took dictation. But the Eastern Daily Press, a newspaper that circulates in the East Anglian region of the UK, raised another possibility: "Musician Uli Jon Roth, speaking at the thatched cottage where Miss Dannemann lived, said last night: 'The thing looks suspicious. She had a lot of death threats against her over the years. ... I always felt that she was really being crucified in front of everybody, and there was nothing anyone could do about it.' Mr. Roth, formerly with the group The Scorpions, said Miss Danneman 'is not a person to do something to herself."' Roth threw one more inconsistency on the lot: "She didn't believe in the concept of suicide."
Devon Wilson, another Hendrix paramour, in Experience drummer Mitch Mitchell's view, "died under mysterious circumstances herself a few years later." 
Red, Red Wine
Was Hendrix murdered while under the influence? Stanton Steele, an authority on addiction, offers a seemingly plausible explanation, "Extremely intoxicated people while asleep often lose the reflexive tendency to clear one's throat of mucus, or they may strangle in their vomit. This appeared to have happened to Jimi Hendrix, who had taken both alcohol and prescription barbiturates the night of his death." 
Evidence has recently come to light clarifying the cause of death -- extreme alcohol consumption aggravated by the barbiturates in Hendrix's bloodstream -- drowning. Hendrix is said to have choked to death after swallowing nine Vesperax sleeping tablets. This is not the lethal dose he'd have taken if suicide was the intent -- he surely would have swallowed the remaining 40 or so pills in the packets Dannemann gave him if this was the idea -- as Eric Burdon, the Animals' vocalist and a friend of Hendrix, has suggested over the years.
Hendrix was not felled by a drug overdose, as many news reports claimed. The pills were a sleeping aid, and not a very effective one at that. The two Vesperax that Dannemann saw him take before she fell asleep at 3 AM failed to put him under. He had taken a Durophet 20 amphetamine capsule at a dinner party the evening before. And then Hendrix, a chronic insomniac with an escalated tolerance level for barbiturates, had tried the Vesperax before and they proved ineffective. He apparently believed nine tablets would do him no harm.
At 10 AM, Dannemann awoke and went out for a pack of cigarettes, according to her inquest testimony. When she returned, he was sick. She phoned Eric Bridges, a friend, and informed him that Hendrix wasn't well. "Half asleep," Bridges reported in his autobiography, "I suggested she give him hot coffee and slap his face. If she needed any more help to call me back." Dannemann called the ambulance at 18 minutes past 11 AM. The ambulance arrived nine minutes later. Hendrix was not, she claimed, in critical condition. She said the paramedics checked his pulse and breathing, and stated there was "nothing to worry about."
But a direct contradiction came in an interview with Reg Jones, one of the attendants, who insisted that Dannemann wasn't at the flat when they arrived, and that Hendrix was already dead. "It was horrific," Jones said. "We arrived at the flat and the door was flung wide open. ... I knew he was dead as soon as I walked into the room." Ambulance attendant John Suau confirmed, "We knew it was hopeless. There was no pulse, no respiration." 
The testimonies of Dannemann and medical personnel at the 1970 inquest are disturbingly contradictory. Hendrix, the medical personnel stated, had been dead for at least seven hours by the time the ambulance arrived. Dr. Rufus Compson at the Department of Forensic Medicine at St. George's Medical School undertook his own investigation. He referred to the original medical examiner's report and discovered that there were rice remains in Hendrix's stomach. It takes three-four hours for the stomach to empty, he reasoned, and the deceased ate Chinese food at a dinner party hosted by Pete Cameron between the hours of 11 PM and midnight, placing the time of death no later than 4 AM.2  This is consistent with the report of Dr. Bannister, the surgical registrar, that "the inside of his mouth and mucous membranes were black because he had been dead for some time." Dr. Bannister told the London Times, "Hendrix had been dead for hours rather than minutes when he was admitted to the hospital." 
The inquest itself was "unusual," Tony Brown notes, because "none of the other witnesses involved were called to give their evidence, nor was any attempt made to ascertain the exact time of death," as if the subject was to be avoided. The result was that the public record on this basic fact in the case may have been incorrectly cited by scores of reporters and biographers. Tony Brown: "Even [medical examiner] Professor Teare made no attempt to ascertain the exact time of death. The inquest appeared to be conducted merely as a formality and had not been treated by the coroner as a serious investigation." 
In 'S'cuse Me While I Kiss the Sky (1996), Bill Henderson describes the inquest and its aftermath: "Those who followed his death ... noticed many inconsistencies in the official inquest. It has been an open and shut affair that managed to hide its racist intent behind the public perceptual hoax of Hendrix as a substance abuser. ... As a result, millions of people all over the world thought that Hendrix had died that typical rock star's death: drug OD amid fame, opulence, decadence. But it seems that Hendrix could very well have been the victim not of decadence, but of foul play." 
Forensic tests submitted at the inquest have been supplemented over the years by new evidence that makes a reconstruction of the murder possible. In October, 1991, Steve Roby, publisher of Straight Ahead, a Hendrix fanzine, asked, "What Really Happened?": "Kathy Etchingham, a close friend/lover of Jimi's, and Dee Mitchell, Mitch Mitchell's wife, spent many months tracking down former friends and associates of Hendrix, and are convinced they have solved the mystery of the final hours." Central to reconstructing Hendrix's death is red wine. Dr. Bannister reports that after the esophagus had been cleared, "masses" of red wine were "coming out of his nose and out of his mouth." The wine gushing up in great volume from Hendrix's lungs "is very vivid because you don't often see people who have drowned in their own red wine. He had something around him -- whether it was a towel or a jumper -- around his neck and that was saturated with red wine. His hair was matted. He was completely cold. I personally think he probably died a long time before. ... He was cold and he was blue." 
The abstract morbidity of Hendrix's body upon discovery may indicate a more complex scenario than has been commonly held. Hendrix was not a red wine guzzler, especially in the amounts found in and around his body. He was known to be moderate in his consumption. If he was 'sleeping normally,' then why was he fully clothed? And how could the ambulance attendants have missed seeing someone who was supposed to be there? The garment, or towel, around his neck is totally mysterious given the scenario so widely distributed. But it is consistent with the doctor's statement that he drowned. Was he drowned by force? In a radio interview broadcast out of Holland in the early 1970s, an unnamed girlfriend answered 'yes' to the question, 'Was Hendrix killed by the Mafia?' 
Tony Brown, in Hendrix: The Final Days (1997), correlates the consumption of the wine to the approximate time of death: "Jimi must have drunk a large quantity of red wine just prior to his death," suggesting, the quantity of alcohol in his lungs was the direct cause. 
The revised time of death, 3-4 AM, contradicts the gap in the official record, and so does the revelation that Jimi Hendrix drowned in red wine. While it is common knowledge that Hendrix choked to death, it has only recently come to light that the wine -- not the Verparex -- was the primary catalyst of death. Hendrix was, the evidence suggests, forced to drink a quantity of wine. The barbiturates, as Brown notes, "seriously inhibited Jimi's normal cough reflex." Unable to cough the wine back up, "it went straight down into his lungs. ... It is quite possible that he thrashed about for some time, fighting unsuccessfully to gain his breath."  It is doubtful that Hendrix would have continued to swallow the wine in "massive" volumes had it begun to fill his lungs. One explanation that explains the forensic evidence is that Jimi Hendrix was restrained, wine forced down his throat until his thrashings ceased. All of this must have taken place quickly, before the alcohol had time to enter his bloodstream. The post mortem report states that the blood alcohol level was not excessive, about 20 mg over the legal drinking limit. He died before his stomach absorbed much of the wine. Jimi Hendrix choked to death. That much of the general understanding of his demise is correct, and little else.
The kidnapping, embezzling, and numerous shady deceptions would make Jeffrey the leading suspect in any proper police investigation. And his reaction at the news of Hendrix's death did little to dispel any suspicions that associates may have harbored. Jim Marron, a nightclub owner from Manhattan, was vacationing with Jeffrey in Spain when word of the musician's death reached him. "We were supposed to have dinner that night in Majorca," Marron recalls. Jeffrey "called me from his club in Palma saying that we would have to cancel. ... I've just got word from London. Jimi's dead." The manager of the Hendrix Experience took the news completely in stride. "I always knew that son of a bitch would pull a quickie," Jeffrey told Marron. "Basically, he had lost a major property. You had the feeling that he had just lost a couple of million dollars -- and was the first to realize it. My first reaction was, Oh my God, my friend is dead."  But Jeffrey reacted coldly, comparing the fatality to a fleeting sexual romp in the afternoon.
His odd behavior continued in the days following the death of Hendrix. He appeared to be consumed by guilt, and on one occasion "confessed." On September 20, recording engineer Alan Douglas received a call from Jeffrey, who wanted to see him. Douglas drove to the hotel where Jeffrey was staying. "He was bent over, in misery from a recent back injury. We started talking and he let it all out. It was like a confession."
"In my opinion," Douglas observed, "Jeffrey hated Hendrix."
Bob Levine, the band's merchandising manager, was perplexed by Jeffrey's response to the tragedy. First, Hendrix's manager dropped completely out of sight. "We tried calling all of Jeffrey's contacts ... trying to reach him. We were getting frustrated because Hendrix's body was going to be held up in London for two weeks and we wanted Jeffrey's input on the funeral service. A full week after Hendrix's death, he finally called. Hearing his voice, I immediately asked what his plans were and would he be going to Seattle. 'What plans?' he asked. I said, 'The funeral.' 'What funeral?' he replied. I was exasperated: 'Jimi's!' The phone went quiet for a while and then he hung up. The whole office was staring at me, unable to believe that with all the coverage on radio, print and teIevision, Jeffrey didn't know that Jimi had died." As noted, Jeffrey had been notified and almost grieved, in his fashion. "He called back in five minutes and we talked quietly. He said, 'Bob, I didn't know,' and was asking about what had happened. While I didn't confront him, I knew he was lying." 
It was reported that Michael Jeffrey "paid his respects" sitting in a limousine parked outside Dunlap Baptist Church in Seattle. He refused to go inside for the eulogy.  Hendrix was buried at the family plot at Greenwood Cemetery in Renton.
Screenwriter Alan Greenberg was hired to write a screenplay for a film on the life of Jimi Hendrix. He traveled to England and taped an interview with Dannemann shortly before her death in April, 1996. In that interview, Dannemann sketched in more details of Jeffrey's skullduggery, which continued after Hendrix's death and has long been concealed behind a wall of misconceptions. On the Greenberg tapes, Dannemann denied allegations of heroin use, as do others close to Hendrix: "You should put that into the right perspective since all of the youngsters still think he was a drug addict. The problem was, when he died, I was told by the coroner not to talk until after the inquest, so that's why all these wild stories came out that he overdosed from heroin." The coroner found no injection tracks on Hendrix's body. That he snorted the opiate, a charge advanced by biographer Chris Welch in Hendrix, is disputed by Jimi's closest friends. He indulged primarily in marijuana and LSD. The popular misconception that Hendrix was a heroin addict lingers on but should have been buried with him. One of rock's greatest talents was maliciously smeared by the press on this count.
At times, the public has been deliberately misled about Hendrix's drug habits. Kathy Etchingham, a former girlfriend, was deceived into giving an article about Jimi to a friend in the corporate media, and it was snatched up by a newspaper, rewritten, and the story that emerged depicted the guitarist as a violent and drug-infested lunatic. The editor later apologized in writing to Kathy for falsifying the record, but failed to retract in print.  Media swipes at Hendrix to this day are often unreasonably vicious, as in this transparent attempt to shape public opinion from London's Times on December 14, 1993:
Not only did [Hendrix] leave several memorable compositions behind him; he left a good-looking corpse. Kathy Etchingham, a middle-class mother of two, who used to be one of Hendrix's lovers, still mourns his passing and is seeking to persuade the police that there is something suspicious about the circumstances in which he died. Quite why she should bother is hard to say. Perhaps she is bored.
Hendrix, we are advised, "lived an absurdly self-indulgent life and died, in essence, of stupidity."
Close friends of Jimi Hendrix suggest that Jeffrey was the front man for a surreptitious sponsor, the FBI, CIA, or Mafia. In 1975, Crawdaddy magazine launched its own investigation and concluded that a death squad of some kind had targeted him: "Hendrix is not the only artist to have had his career sabotaged by unscrupulous sharks and leeches." The recent memory of the death of Average White Band drummer Robby McIntosh from strychnine-laced heroin circulating at a party in Los Angeles "only serves to update this fact of rock 'n' roll life. But an industry that accepts these tragedies in cold blood demonstrates its true nature -- and the Jimi Hendrix music machine cranks on, unencumbered by the absence of Hendrix himself. One wonders who'll be the next in line?" 
On March 5, as if in reply, Michael Jeffrey, every musician's nightmare, was blown out of the sky in an airplane collision over France, enroute to a court appearance in London related to Hendrix. Jeffrey was returning from Palma aboard an Iberia DC-9 in the midst of a French civil air traffic control strike. Military controllers were called in as contingency replacements for the controllers. Hendrix biographer Bill Henderson considers the midair collision fuel for "paranoia." The nature of military airline control "necessitated rigorous planning, limited traffic on each sector, and strict compliance with regulations. The DC-9 however was assigned to the same flight over Nantes as a Spantax Coronado, which 'created a source of conflict.' And because of imprecise navigation, lack of complete radar coverage, and imperfect radio communications, the two planes collided. The Coronado was damaged but remained airworthy; no one was injured. The DC-9 crashed, killing all 61 passengers and seven crew. ..." There are theories that Jeffrey was merely a tool, a mouthpiece for the real villains lurking in the wings, that he was "the target of assassination." 
A quarter-century after Hendrix died, his father finally won control of the musical legacy. Under a settlement signed in 1995, the rights to his son's music were granted to 76-year-old Al Hendrix, the sole heir to the estate. The agreement, settled in court, forced Hendrix to drop a fraud suit filed two years earlier against Leo Branton Jr., the L.A. civil rights attorney who represented Angela Davis and Nat King Cole. Hendrix accused his lawyer of selling the rights to the late rock star's publishing catalogue without consent.
Hendrix, Sr. filed the suit on April 19, 1993, after learning that MCA Music Entertainment -- a company rife with Mafia connections -- was readying to snatch up his son's recording and publishing rights from two international companies that claimed to own them. The MCA deal, estimated to be worth $40 million, was put on hold after objections were raised in a letter to the Hollywood firm from Hendrix. By this time, Experience albums generated more than $3 million per annum in royalties, and $1 million worth of garments, posters and paraphernalia bearing his name and likeness are sold each year. All told, Al Hendrix should receive $2 million over 20 years. 
2. John Raymond and Marv Class, "The FBI Investigated Jimi Hendrix," Common Ground, University of Santa Barbara, CA student newspaper, vol. iv, no. 9, June 7, 1979, p. 1
3. "Jimi Hendrix, Black Power and Money," Teenset, January, 1969.
4. Tony Brown, Hendrix The Final Days, London: Rogan House, 1997, p. 43.
5. On Mike Jeffrey's undefined politics, see. John McDermott with Eddie Kramer, Hendrix Setting the Record Straight, New York: Warner, 1992, p. 180.
6. Harry Shapiro and Ceasar Blebbeek, Jimi Hendrix, Electric Gypsy, New York: St. Martin's, 1990, p.120.
7. Bill Henderson, "IT'S LIKE TRYING TO GET OUT OF A ROOM FULL OF MIRRORS," Jimi Hendrix web page, http.//www.rockmine.music.co.uk/jimih.html.
8. Fredric Dannen, Hit Men, Power Brokers and Fast Money Inside the Music Industry, New York: Times Books, 1990, p. 164-5.
9. Shapiro and Blebbeek, Jimi Hendrix, Electric Gypsy, New York. St. Martin's, 1990, p. 294. The Fudge once booked a tour with Jimi Hendrix, per arrangement between the band's mobbed-up management and Michael Jeffrey, Hendrix's manager.
10. Dannen, p. 165.
11. Shapiro and Glebbeek, p. 295.
12. Monika Dannemann, The Inner World of Jimi Hendrix, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, pp 76-8.
13. John Swenson, "The Last Days of Jimi Hendrix," Crawdaddy, January, 1975, p. 43.
14 Ibid., p. 488.
15. "Banks and Narcotics Money Flow in South Florida," US Senate Banking Committee report, 96th Congress, June 5- 6, 1980, p. 201
16. Jonathon Kwitny, The Crimes of Patriots. A Truee Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA, New York: Touchstone, 1987, p. 153.
17. Josh Rodin, "BANK OF CROOKS AND CRIMINALS?" Topic 105, Christic News, August 6, 1991.
18. R. Gary Patterson, Hellhounds on Their Trail. Tales from the Rock n' Roll Graveyard, Nashville, Tennessee. Dowling Press, 1998, p. 208.
20. Shapiro and Glebbeek, p. 473.
21. Shapiro and Glebeek, p. 477.
22. Swenson. In Crosstown Traffic (1989), Charles Murray reports that Hendrix "began consulting independent lawyers and accountants with a view of sorting out his tangled finances and freeing himself from Mike Jeffrey," p. 55.
23 Henderson website.
24. Brown, p. 7.
25 Mitch Mitchell with John Platt, Jimi Hendrix -- Inside the Experience, New York: St. Martin's, 1990, p. 160.
26. E. Stanton Steele, "The Human Side Of Addiction. What caused John Belushi's death?" US Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence, April 1982, p. 7.
27. David Henderson, 'Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky, New York: Bantam, 1996, pp. 389-90.
28. Brown, p. 164.
29. Henderson, p. 392
30. Brown, p. 163.
31. Henderson, p. 388.
32. Ibid., p. 392.
33. Henderson, 'Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky, p. 393. If the Mafia did indeed participate, Hendrix wasn't the first African-American musician to have a contract on his head. In May 1955, jazz sax man Wardell Gray was murdered, probably by Mafia hitmen. Gray had toured with Benny Goodman and Count Basie in 1948. His remarkable recording sessions of the late 1940s, especially with Dexter Gordon, brought him fame. Bill Moody, a jazz drummer and disk jockey, published a novel in 1996, Death of a Tenor Man, based on the life and death of Gray. "It's strange," a publisher's press release comments, "that 1950s Las Vegas, a town in which the Mob and corrupt police worked hand in glove, became the home of the first integrated nightclub in the country. The Moulin Rouge was owned by blacks and had the honor of being the only casino hotel in Vegas that allowed African-Americans to mingle with white customers. On opening night, Nat King Cole and Frank Sinatra sat in with Benny Carter's band. The second night, Wardell Gray, a black sax player in the Carter band with a growing reputation, was beaten to death. The police said he overdosed and 'fell out of bed,' dying later 'of complications.' Some suspected Gray's death was the Mob's way of telling the African- American businessmen who backed the Moulin Rouge that 'this town isn't big enough for the both of us.'" Gray's murder has never been investigated. It "hung over the Moulin Rouge like a storm cloud" and remains unsolved. The casino went out of business a few months later.
And the 1961 attempt on the life of soul singer Jackie Wilson has never been rationally explained. Wilson was shot in the stomach by a fan supposedly trying to "prevent a fan from killing herself." He recovered from the assault and went on to release "No Pity (In the Naked City)" and "Higher and Higher."
The Halloween 1975 murder of Al Jackson, percussionist for Booker T. and the MGs, at the age of 39, also appeared to be a premeditated hit. Barbara Jackson, his wife, was the sole eyewitness. She told police, according to Rolling Stone, that she "arrived home on the night of the shooting and was met by a gun-wielding burglar who tied her hands behind her back with an ironing cord." Al Jackson, who'd been taking in a closed circuit teecast of the Muhammad Ali Joe Frazier fight, arrived an hour later. Any burglar would have collected valuables in the house and fled by this time, but he waited a full hour for Jackson to return home. Barbara Jackson was freed from the ropes and the "burglar" ordered her at gunpoint to open the door for him. "After confronting Jackson and asking him for money, the intruder forced him to lie on the floor. He then shot Jackson five times in the back and left." (Rolling Stone, November 1975).
34. Brown, p. 165.
35. Brown, pp. 165-66
36. McDermott and Kramer, pp. 286-87.
39. Shapiro and Glebeek, p. 474.
40. Swenson, p. 45.
41. Henderson website
42. Chuck Philips, "Father to Get Hendrix Song, Image Rights," Los Angeles Times (home edition), July 26, 1995, p. 1 Also named as defendants were producer Alan Douglas and several firms that have profited from the Hendrix catalogue since 1974 under contracts negotiated by Branton: New York-based ella Godiva Music Inc; Presentaciones Musicales SA (PMSA), a Panamanian corporation; Bureau Voor Muzeikrechten Elber B.V. in the Netherlands; and Interlit, based in the Virgin Islands.
Branton negotiated two contracts in early 1974 -- signed by Al Hendrix -- that relinquished all rights to his son's "unmastered" tapes for $50,000 to PMSA and all his stock in Bella Godiva, his son's music publishing company, for $50,000. "PMSA and the other overseas companies were later discovered to be part of a tax shelter system created by Harry Margolis," reported the Los Angeles Times, "a Saratoga attorney whom federal prosecutors charged but never convicted of tax fraud. The tax shelter plan collapsed after Margolis' death in 1987, and also [prompted] complaints from the estates of other entertainment clients, including singer Nat King Cole, screenwriter Larry Hauben as well as from followers of New Age philosopher Werner Erhard, who allegedly stashed revenues from his EST enterprise in the foreign account."
When You're a Stranger: Fragrance de CHAOS -- Investigative Findings on the Death of Jim Morrison
THERE IS MENACE UNDER THE MUSIC, BUT SOMETHING IS BEING HELD BACK. A SENSE OF ANGER, RAGE AND BETRAYAL. BENT OVER THE MIKE, MORRISON, WHO FOUR DAYS LATER WOULD GIVE HIS LAST CONCERT THEN ABANDON THE BAND, LEAVING ROCK BEHIND, IS AT HIS PROVOCATIVE, INFLAMMATORY, CONFRONTATIONAL BEST, REPEATING HIMSELF OVER AND OVER AGAIN "ROCK IS DEAD. ROCK IS DEAD. IT'S DYING. IT'S OVER. IT'S OVER. ROCK 'N' ROLL IS DEAD."
IF NOSTALGIA ISN'T WHAT IT USED TO BE, NEITHER IS ROCK. WEIGHED DOWN BY ITS OWN MYTHOLOGICAL PAST, TOP-HEAVY BECAUSE OF THE UNNATURAL LONGEVITY OF TOO MANY BANDS, BLOATED BECAUSE OF THE SIZE OF THE CORPORATIONS THAT DOMINATE THE INDUSTRY, ROCK MUSIC HAS BEEN WAY TOO SUCCESSFUL FOR ITS OWN GOOD. MICHAEL EPIS, AUSTRALIAN CRITIC
Jim Morrison's body was found by Pamela Courson, Morrison's common-law wife in the bathtub at their flat in Paris, France in the early morning hours of July 3, 1971 -- exactly two years after the death of Brian Jones.  The New York Times reported, "Jim Morrison, lead singer of The Doors rock group, died last Saturday in Paris, his public relations firm said today." The death was initially attributed to "natural causes," "pneumonia," and finally (but by no means conclusively) "heart failure."  "Details were withheld pending the return of Mr. Morrison's agent from France. Funeral services were held in Paris today. In his black leather jacket and skin-tight vinyl pants, Jim Morrison personified rock music's image of superstar as sullen, mystical sexual poet."
The surviving Doors, Robbie Krieger, Ray Manzarek and John Densmore, discussed Morrison's death in an interview conducted on February 11, 1983 by BBC-2's Robin Denselow at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London. Manzarek recalled his state of denial upon learning of Jim Morrison's death, and weighed the possibility of political assassination.
Manzarek: We got a phone call. I got a phone call Saturday morning saying Jim Morrison is dead in Paris. Yeah, yeah, yeah ... sure, right John had talked to him a couple of weeks beforehand and he's dead ... Q: What about CIA involvement? Manzarek: Well, I've heard that theory, yeah, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, Jimi Hendrix. Black man, white man, white woman. You know the flowering of American youth in poetry and art and music ... trying to stop it all. It's conceivable Densmore: There was definitely some political weirdness at Miami, that [obscenity charge] coming down. Krieger: And there was an FBI file on Morrison that we got a hold of, so the government was aware of The Doors ...
Morrison's spontaneous political outbursts in rock press interviews attracted FBI attention. "I like ideas about the breaking away or overthrowing of established order," he announced. "I am interested in anything about revolt, disorder, chaos -- especially activity that seems to have no meaning. It seems to me to be the road toward freedom -- external revolt is a way to bring about internal freedom." 
In another interview, Manzarek considered possible motives for eliminating the anarchistic Lizard King:
They were going to stop all of rock 'n' roll by stopping The Doors. As far as Americans were concerned, he was the most dangerous. Janis Joplin was just a white woman singing about getting drunk and laid a lot, and Jimi Hendrix was a black guy singing, 'Let's get high.' Morrison was singing, "We want the world and we want it now." There was plenty of hounding. 
FBI harassment, in fact, rendered Morrison so anxiety-ridden that he contracted an ulcer by his mid-'20s -- a condition not exactly conducive to overthrowing the established order. "Paranoia" struck deep, and biographers James Riordan and Jerry Prochnicky confirm that Morrison was a "marked" man.
The busts took their toll on Morrison. By 1970 he was still reeling from the effects of one federal trial and about to face another. And the FBI had marked him. It was they who made the charges in Miami stick. Morrison was guilty before he was arrested. But the particular crimes were not the problem. The real issue was because he was guilty of being Jim Morrison, a larger-than-life symbol of rebellion to the youth of America, and thereby a threat.
The busts cost Morrison a great deal of money, but more than that they wore him down and sapped his enthusiasm for life. "The vice squad would be at the side of the stage with our names filled in on the warrants, just waiting to write in the offense," Manzarek recollected. "Narks to the left, vice squad to the right, into the valley of death rode the four. They wanted to stop Morrison. They wanted to show him that he couldn't get away with it. 
Like Brian Jones and Jimi Hendrix before him, and many rock musicians to follow, Morrison was consumed by "paranoia," as historian Marianne Sinclair observes.
Inevitably, Morrison and The Doors became a focus for attack and victimization by the conventional forces of society. Doors' performances were frequently canceled at the last minute through the efforts of local do-gooders, and audiences were regularly clubbed by policemen during concerts. This was too much for Morrison, within whom the forces of destruction had already been long at work. A heavy user of LSD and an alcoholic who could get drunk at any time of the day or night on whatever happened to be handy, Morrison seemed hell-bent on killing himself young. He once described his drinking as 'not suicide, but slow capitulation.' What he was capitulating to was his own need to block out the sense of frustration, despair and growing paranoia. 
Morrison's death was followed by press reports noting federal interest in Morrison's life, political views and, significantly, all independent investigations of his death.
Researcher Thomas Lyttle gathered up leads in the international press.
One of the more explicit appeared in the Scandinavian magazine Dagblatte. This article detailed French intelligence efforts to assassinate Jim Morrison in Paris. 
In France, the Documentation Exterieure et De Contre Espionage (SDECE) performs internal security functions. Under DeGaulle, it was SDECE's policy to resist and oppose the CIA, with the exception of a small contingent within the bureau enlisted to collaborate secretly with Langley. Under Pompidou and d'Estang, the domestic French intelligence service was ordered to cooperate fully with US intelligence agents and would have been drawn into any assassination plans in Paris conceived by the CIA. 
SDECE assassins are highly-trained and were certainly capable of killing Morrison discreetly, leaving no trace of their complicity. There are precedents. In 1962, an SDECE agent code-named Laurent rigged the Rome-bound flight of a plane, and Italian oil millionaire Enrico Mattei died in the crash. The magnate's offense: a planned take-over of French interests in Algerian oil. Time magazine reporter William McHale was also killed.  At the behest of their American counterparts in Virginia, the "murder committee" of de Centre Espionage was undeniably capable of eliminating a troublesome rock celebrity and burying the evidence.
Bob Seymore pieced together official documents for The End, his book on the peculiar circumstances surrounding Morrison's death, and soon found himself immersed in a sea of contradictions and unanswered questions. One of the most troubling was his belief that Pamela Courson withheld evidence, and that friends Alan Ronay, Agnes Varda and Bill Siddons "know more than they have revealed in public." Morrison biographer Danny Sugarman told Seymore that he had government documents through Freedom of Information Act request for files pertaining to Morrison's death. Seymore writes:
I asked if Danny had seen such documents, then why were there no details of any of them in his book? He said that Pamela had told him things about Jim's death that he promised her he would never divulge. ... 
Sugarman is married to indicted Contragate co-conspirator Fawn Hall, Oliver North's secretary at the National Security Council, who shredded an 18-inch file of documents linking the Reagan administration to the diversion of funds from Iran arms sales to the Nicaraguan contras on November 21, 1986, and quipped before a Congressional committee, "Sometimes you have to go above the law" (ironic in light of her admission to the DEA during a federal drug investigation in 1989 that she "used cocaine many times" in her three years as an NSC staffer) -- and he has concealed evidence that would shed light on Morrison's death.
Why suppress evidence of this significance to the historical record? Supposedly because Sugarman "promised Pam" he would conceal and suppress certain facts, as he explained to Seymore. Danny Sugarman predictably rejects all "conspiracy theories" out of hand, but he is himself is involved in a conspiracy of silence, ignoring not only official intelligence files but the aforementioned public reports on prior attempts by French intelligence agents to murder Jim Morriso -- -a documented "finger on the trigger," a conspiracy -- and instead stating that Morrison did, per the official verdict, suffer some sort of cardiopulmonary arrest at the tender age of 27 in Paris. But when pressed to account for the gaping discrepancies in the case -- for instance, heart failure causes anguished thrashing and ordinarily does not leave a smile, such as the one reported by Courson and the paramedics, on the victim's face -- Sugarman concedes that Morrison's death "could have involved a number of factors," and when cornered by Seymore, reluctantly conceded:
You could say that the CIA and other intelligence agencies may have had a hand in the deaths of Hendrix, Janis Joplin and then Morrison. Simply for the reason that they were leaders of a generation during the 1960s. 
You could also say that Morrison was viewed as an anarchistic defiler of "restless youth" in some loops on the Washington Beltway, according to Sugarman's own best-selling biography:
Jim was certainly popular enough, and more threateningly, smart enough to cause the powers that be ample reason to take some sort of action to prevent his subversive influence. Surely the authorities were wary of him." 
Doors of Deception
How wary? Enough to keep secret files on Morrison. Enough to spread false rumors to the effect that he had faked his own death to deflect attention from political assassination. The "conspiracy," as charted by Sugarman and others, was a hoax hatched by Morrison to "fake his own death." A book, The Bank of America of Louisiana, appeared in 1975, supposedly written by Morrison, the source of the rumor.  In No One Here Gets Out Alive, a sensational history larded with drug-and-sex debauchery, Sugarman and Hopkins devote an entire chapter to "evidence" that Morrison had survived Paris and launched a new life free from the encumbrances of celebrity and the FBI.
The rumor was a deliberate obfuscation concocted by unknown covert operators The proper question is "Who killed Morrison?" not "Is he still alive and working for the Bank of America?"
Author Thomas Lyttle writes:
In the first few years after Morrison's death, the owner of B of A Communications, named James Douglas Morrison, claimed to be operating as an intelligence agent for a number of domestic and international groups including the CIA, NSA, Interpol, Swedish Intelligence and others. There are also connections between James Douglas Morrison and various occult groups with probable intelligence connections ... JM2 also claims to be the "dead" rock star and former singer for The Doors. The new JM2 dropped the old JM1 rock and roll identity to become "James Bond."
This author has in fact seen what appear to be stacks of official-looking documents and letters between the CIA, various government agencies, national news groups like CNN and NBC and JM2, involving what looked like personal meetings, projects and ephemera. Of special interest is that when I viewed parts of the files, all the reports had a paper-thin metallic band affixed to them with colored UPC bar codes. There is no way for me to authenticate the claims of JM2, but everything looked extremely official and very elaborate. ....
A courtroom transcript which I have seen implicates the FBI and CIA in several coverups regarding JM2's intelligence career. These show that there seems to be a systematic destruction of files relating to JM2's spy activities. Also in my possession are files concerning JM2's rogue financial activities with the Bank of America, and news reports regarding lawsuits by and against JM2 for bank fraud and espionage.
There also appear to be hundreds if not thousands of miscellaneous files. These involve the CIA, Danish intelligence, and others. There are also an active passport and banking IDs under the name James Douglas Morrison.
Is this all for real or is this an elaborate hoax? ... The important thing to note for the sake of this study is that someone or some group is actively pursuing and setting up a mass "urban legend" regarding James Morrison. They are painstakingly documenting it also. Whether this is a hoax or not is not as important as the fact that a lot of official-looking information is being generated surrounding the myth and legend of Jim Morrison. 
Any account of the second Morrison's career (according to Daniel Brandt's NameBase website, an index of names related to intelligence activity, the CIA employs one James Douglas Morrison, an active agent stationed in France) would be incomplete without the names of the Morrison double's Agency contacts, particularly William Colby, a CIA director under Richard Nixon. Since 1972, Morrison's double has left a surreal international trail of paper. The documents include letters to and from Louisiana Governor Edwin Edwards and late CIA Director William Colby, through the Washington, DC law firm of Colby, Miller and Hanes.
The day before his death, the original Jim Morrison sent a telegram to Jonathan Dolger, a publishing contact in New York, about changing the cover of a book of poetry written by the Door. Bob Seymore, trying to piece together Morrison's final days in Paris, phoned Dolger and discovered that someone else was interested in that telegram:
"Oh, my God," [Dolger] said. It was as though he had been woken up from an old nightmare. I asked him about the telegram but he said he no longer had it. At first he thought maybe his former employers had it in their files. Then he realized that a man whose name he had forgotten contacted him to ask if he could have the telegram Jim sent. This was a month after Jim died and the person said he was with Jim when he died. ... 
There are a score of unknowns to resolve before writing Morrison off as a crazed narco-rocker bent on self-destruction:
The cause of Jim Morrison's death was an unspecified "heart failure," so states the forensic examiner's report, not an "attack" or "seizure." The heart failed, quit. Dr. Vasille noted "a little blood round the nostrils," indicating a hemorrhage, inconsistent with heart failure. Paramedics from the local Fire Brigade reported that Morrison was still smiling when they arrived, also not consistent with the officially-stated cause of death. *
Dr. Derwin, the singer's personal physician, told representatives of the media industry: "Jim Morrison was in excellent health before traveling to Paris."  Pam Courson, the last person to see him alive, wrote in her signed statement to Paris police that the night before his death, Morrison "looked in good health, he seemed very happy."  *
No autopsy was performed -- a probable violation of French law and certain violation of French custom. *
Two persons could answer questions about the odd death. Ms. Courson died of "apparent overdose" herself on April 24, 1974 -- a few days before a judge would have ruled in her favor concerning a dispute over the distribution of the Morrison inheritance, a decision that would have brought her, as Morrison's common-law wife and sole heir, a quarter of the Doors' income and an immediate payment of half a million dollars  -- and Dr. Max Vassille, the medical examiner, consistently turns down all interviews related to Morrison's death.  *
Pamela's friends, James Riordan reports in Break On Through, believe she was murdered: some "suspect foul play, saying that although Pam had been using heroin, she could not shoot herself up. She always had to have someone else do it. Whoever did it, they claim, knew he or she was injecting her with a lethal [dose]," a "hot- shot." 
Jim Morrison died in a bathtub, this much is certain based on the statements of Courson, friends of Morrison close to the case, and Paris officials.
Dr. Vassille estimated the time of death to be 5:00 AM. Paramedics arrived at the flat at exactly 9:24 AM, an interval of nearly four and a half hours, but the bath water, they reported, was still "lukewarm." So Morrison probably died two- three hours later than the death certificate claims. This would place the time of death closer to 7-8 AM.
Pamela Courson told police that Morrison had choked in his sleep, that she shook him awake. He was in wretched condition and told her that a bath might make him feel better. This was roughly 2:30 in the morning. Courson told police that she fell asleep and awoke to discover the body in the bathtub at about 5 AM. The timeline revised by water temperature leads to the inescapable conclusion that he was alive after the estimated time of death.
The statements of witnesses and officials clash, and this often happens when fear or coercion forces them to fabricate cover stories. It's entirely possible that Courson was threatened, or feared to implicate others, and this is why Sugarman mumbles that she and all close to the case "knew more about Morrison's death" than they ever revealed -- exactly as witnesses to the murder of Brian Jones did under duress for thirty years. Dr. Vassille may have been forced by Pamela Courson's statements to find the time of death at 5 AM. This and his refusal to talk to the press suggest that the medical examiner was also under pressure -- orders from superiors, threats to himself or his family -- and suppressed information regarding Morrison's death.
What were they concealing? Patricia Kennealy Morrison believes that her husband-by-pagan-ceremony overdosed on heroin. She sides with the late Albert Goldman on this particular point, although in general she steadfastly rejects the "noxious lie-o-rama" allegations that "Albert Goldigger" made concerning the deceased Door.
Dr. John Morgan written more than 100 articles and books on clinical pharmacology, and "declares Jim to have quite likely died, in his opinion, of a prolonged heroin overdose, an overdose drawn out into respiratory depression over several hours because Jim did not shoot the smack but snorted it," Patricia wrote in 1997. Other medical specialists consulted by her agreed with this diagnosis, finding "nasal or esophageal varices as the likely cause of Jim's reported profuse bleeding." Dr. Morgan: "Pam's versions certainly indicate that he was snorting heroin. A nasal or oral dose would delay the decline into respiratory death."  The OD was gradual and evidently not traumatic, to judge by the smile on his face when found.
The consensus among most investigative reporters, medical consultants, and Morrison's circle of friends is also that he overdosed on heroin. Pamela's closest friend at the time of Morrison's death, Diane Gardiner, told biographer James Riordan that Courson had "confessed " to her. Courson "told me a lot about Jim's death. It's true that he got into some of Pam's drugs and overdosed." 
Pamela told Sugarman that Morrison -- who mortally feared the narcotic after the death of Janis Joplin and ordinarily avoided it -- was deeply depressed and intended to numb the pain by helping himself to her provisions. "She started telling me something about Jim's death being her fault and that he had found out that she was doing heroin, and 'You know Jim, of course he wanted to try it.' Then she looked at me and said, 'It was my stash -- Jim didn't know how to score. He knew how to drink.' She said that later he didn't feel well and decided to take a bath and she nodded out. But when I pressed her for details she suddenly denied the whole thing." 
A similar account was told by Alan Ronay, a friend of Jim Morrison's since UCLA film school, one of the last to see the rocker alive. Ronay told a reporter for Paris Match in 1991 that Morrison was still alive when Pam awoke and found him in the bath, a version that conforms to the revised timeline. Ronay said that Pamela pulled him aside after the medical examiners arrived and confided that Morrison had been snorting heroin for 48 hours when she and Morrison fell asleep listening to the first Doors LP. He was choking in his sleep and struggling for air, and she woke him up and helped him to the bath. She fell asleep and woke up again to find that he hadn't returned to bed, discovered him bleeding from the nose and vomiting blood into a pot. Then he told her that he felt better and she should go back to bed. He died shortly thereafter. Pamela told Ronay, "Jim looked so calm. He was smiling." 
Did he ingest poisoned opiate or a "hot shot?" If the posthumous revelations are correct, Jim Morrison and Pamela Courson were both killed by lethal doses of heroin. The absence of an autopsy report precludes any attempt to determine the true cause of Morrison's death, and some of the troubling questions raised here may never be resolved completely if Danny Sugarman, the CIA rumor mongers, and an indifferent press have their way, which raises one more pertinent question What's it to them?
1. Laura Jackson, Golden Stone: The Untold Life and Tragic Death of Brian Jones, New York. St Martin's, 1992, p. 214. Jackson places the exact time of death sometime between 11:30 on July 2 and midnight on July 3, the official date.
2. Doctor Max Vassille, forensic doctor, stated in his medical report that Morrison's death was "natural due to heart failure" -- Bob Seymore, The End The Death of Jim Morrison, London. Omnibus Press, 1991, pp. 61, 63.
3. Quoted in the original Elektra Records bio release, 1967.
4. James Riordan and Jerry Prochnicky, Break On Through: The Life and Death of Jim Morrison, New York William Morrow, 1991, p. 375.
5. Riordan and Prochnicky, p 376.
6. Marianne Sinclair, Those Who Died Young, London Plexus Publishing, 1979.
7. Thomas Lyttle, "Rumors, Myths, and Urban Legends Surrounding the Death of Jim Morrison: in Secret and Suppressed, Jim Keith, ed, Portland. Feral House, 1993, p 117.
8. Henrik Kruger, The Great Heroin Coup: Drugs, Intelligence & International Fascism, Boston South End Press, 1980, p 49.
9. Kruger, p 47.
10. Seymore, p 44, 78.
12. Jerry Hopkins and Danny Sugarman, No One Here Gets Out Alive, New York Warner, 1981, p. 372.
13. Jim Morrison, The Bank of America of Louisiana, [no city listed]. Zeppelin Publishing Corp., 1975.
14. Lyttle, pp. 117-18. The impersonations, Lyttle explains, "were part of sociological experiments like Artichoke or MKULTRA" (p. 119), CIA mind control projects of the 1950s.
15. Seymore, p. 77.
17. Seymore, p. 56.
18. Hopkins and Sugarman, pp. 376-77. Also, Pamela des Barres, Rock Bottom Dark Moments in Music Babylon, New York. St. Martin's, 1996, p. 211.
19. Seymore, p 77.
20. Riordan and Prochnicky, p. 484.
21. Patricia Kennealy Morrison, "An Open Letter to Jim's Fans," October, 1997.